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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

The CEOs of tech's four leading giants will defend their industry's growing concentration of power from critics on both right and left who view them as monopolists when they testify, most likely virtually, before Congress on July 27.

Why it matters: The joint appearance by Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg, Apple's Tim Cook, Amazon's Jeff Bezos and Google's Sundar Pichai will mark a historic collision between the leaders of an industry that has changed the world and political leaders who believe those changes have harmed democracy and individual rights.

This quartet of CEOs has never shared a stage — and thanks to the pandemic they are unlikely to do so when they answer questions from members of the House Judiciary's antitrust subcommittee.

  • The medium of the event itself — like so many pandemic-era events, it's expected to take place via internet videoconference — is a sign of how profoundly the tech industry has reshaped public life.

Background: The last time Congress took on Big Tech at this level was in April 2018, when Zuckerberg appeared before committees from both House and Senate to defend Facebook in the wake of the Cambridge Analytica data privacy scandal and questions about its role in the 2016 election.

  • Pichai also testified before House Judiciary in Dec. 2018 about charges Google is biased against conservatives.
  • Cook testified about Apple's taxes before the Senate's Permanent Committee on Investigations in 2013.
  • Bezos has never before appeared on the Hill.

These CEOs follow in a long line of powerful industry leaders who have volunteered to take their lumps before lawmakers in hope of forestalling punitive legislation and winning over the public.

  • Bank CEOs and pharma CEOs both testified before Congress in group panels in 2019.
  • In 2008, CEOs of the big three U.S. automakers showed up for several hearings related to financial-crisis bailouts, and faced criticism for flying in on private jets.
  • Oil CEOs defended record profits at a 2005 hearing.
  • In previous eras, Congress hauled in John D. Rockefeller, J.P. Morgan and Andrew Carnegie.

The appearances don't always pay off.

  • Bill Gates' defiant, sometimes contemptuous Senate testimony in 1998 helped ensure that Microsoft would end up targeted with a federal antitrust lawsuit.
  • When seven tobacco company CEOs told Congress in 1994 that cigarettes aren't addictive, they cemented a reputation for deception.

How it will work: The format for the tech hearing has not yet been finalized, according to several sources, but the most likely scenario right now is testimony from all four CEOs on the same panel, rather than one after another.

  • We're unlikely to see photos of the CEOs lined up in front of microphones with congressional inquisitors arced around them. Instead, they'll be in the same video rectangles the rest of us get to inhabit today.
  • The plans are already drawing criticism. House Judiciary Committee ranking member Jim Jordan (R-Ohio) demanded that the hearing be held before the full committee, rather than the antitrust subcommittee, in a letter to committee chairman Jerrold Nadler Tuesday.

Of note: Microsoft, the target of Washington's relentless scrutiny 20 years ago, is no longer grouped with the other companies as a target for inquiry.

  • This is either a sign of Microsoft's latter-day success at finding accommodation with regulators and the public, an indication that the company isn't the dominant force it once was — or, most likely, a bit of both.

Our thought bubble: Steve Jobs never testified before Congress.

Go deeper

Ina Fried, author of Login
Oct 13, 2020 - Technology

Apple's events aren't what they used to be

Photo: Apple

Apple will introduce its latest iPhones today using the same format it has employed for more than a decade: a dedicated press event with executives touting how much better the new product is than all the ones that came before it.

Reality check: Apple events aren't nearly as exciting as they used to be. That's especially true since they've gone virtual during the pandemic. But a number of other factors also keep today's hourlong commercials from being as compelling as they used to be.

24 mins ago - Axios on HBO

Preview: "Axios on HBO" interviews White House Senior Advisor Cedric Richmond

On the next episode of "Axios on HBO," Axios co-founder Mike Allen interviews White House Senior Advisor Cedric Richmond.

  • Catch the full interview and much more on Sunday, February 28 at 6 pm. ET/PT on all HBO platforms.
2 hours ago - World

Italy tightens COVID restrictions as experts warn of growing prevalence of variants

Health workers prepare vaccine doses in Iseo, Italy. Photo: Stefano Nicoli/NurPhoto via Getty Images

Italy on Saturday announced it was tightening restrictions in five of the country's 20 regions in an effort curb the spread of the coronavirus.

Driving the news: The announcement comes as health experts and scientists warn of the more transmissible coronavirus variants, per Reuters.

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