Sign up for our daily briefing

Make your busy days simpler with Axios AM/PM. Catch up on what's new and why it matters in just 5 minutes.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Catch up on the day's biggest business stories

Subscribe to Axios Closer for insights into the day’s business news and trends and why they matter

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Stay on top of the latest market trends

Subscribe to Axios Markets for the latest market trends and economic insights. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sports news worthy of your time

Binge on the stats and stories that drive the sports world with Axios Sports. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Tech news worthy of your time

Get our smart take on technology from the Valley and D.C. with Axios Login. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Get the inside stories

Get an insider's guide to the new White House with Axios Sneak Peek. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Denver news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Denver

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Des Moines news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Des Moines

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Twin Cities news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Twin Cities

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Tampa Bay news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Tampa Bay

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Charlotte news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Charlotte

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Nashville news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with the Axios Nashville newsletter.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Columbus news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with the Axios Columbus newsletter.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Dallas news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with the Axios Dallas newsletter.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sign up for Axios NW Arkansas

Stay up-to-date on the most important and interesting stories affecting NW Arkansas, authored by local reporters

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!
Expand chart
Data: Immunization Action Coalition; Map: Aïda Amer/Axios

As measles spreads and public officials try to prevent the disease from becoming endemic in the U.S. again, a debate is heating up nationally over whether to mandate vaccines or keep in place laws that allow for more individual choice.

The latest: Anthony Fauci, head of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, tells Axios instead of mandating vaccines, it's time for states to tighten their exemptions — "the flexibility has gone too far."

Driving the news: Trust in government and in the health care system tends to be linked to people's belief that vaccines are safe, according to Imran Khan, Wellcome Trust's head of public engagement, who discussed their Global Monitor Report on a panel on Wednesday.

  • But, the report also found highly industrialized nations — particularly in France, U.S., U.K. and Japan — showed a relatively high level of distrust in vaccine safety, mostly due to what Khan calls the "complacency effect."
  • The problem is high-income people are living in nations where the disease hasn't been endemic for a while and forget how bad the illness can be. And this is compounded by feeling the health care system is "robust" enough to heal them when they do get sick, Khan adds.
  • Of note: The report was based on a large Gallup World Survey conducted in 144 nations of more than 140,000 people 15 years and older. Methodology is here.

The big question: Agnes Binagwaho, a Rwandan pediatrician and the vice chancellor of the University of Global Health Equity, asked her fellow panelists at the Wellcome briefing...

"All those people who discredit vaccination — and kill people — why don't you make them accountable?"

This led to a panel discussion on whether vaccines should be mandated.

  • Binagwaho said, "Never make them mandatory, create the demand [instead], because [making it mandatory] is believing they are bad parents, and that's just not true." (Rwanda has one of the highest levels of trust on vaccination safety, at 94%. This compares with North America at 72%, per the survey.)
  • Julie Gerberding, EVP and chief patient officer of Merck, said the exemptions have led to a rate of immunization lower than society needs to protect its citizens, but more attention must be paid to "understand what the hesitation is all about ... but at the end of the day, children need to be protected."
  • Khan pointed out that "even if we want to go down that route [of mandatory vaccinations], we'd still have to care about people's perceptions."
  • Mae Jemison, who's the first woman of color in space and principal of the 100 Year Starship Initiative, said, "It's a difficult problem ... I've started to fall down on the side of ... mandatory in places where it will do harm to others if this group of people [is] not vaccinated. However, I think one of the major issues we're seeing is that the scientific, medical and governmental community has been very poor at responding to false information and telling the story in such a way that people understand."

Fauci said philosophical and religious exemptions need a "good look."

  • "If you look closely at religious exemptions, a lot of people are really claiming philosophical exemptions" because the religious mandate may not be there, Fauci says. New York is working on this topic with the Jewish community there.
  • Philosophical exemptions in particular need to be tightened, he added. "We can't have that and have a health care situation that's gotten out of control."

Seth Berkley, CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, who also was not part of the Wellcome report, agreed that the Western world has a level of complacency that's allowed an "environment where misinformation can spread" about vaccines.

  • Another interesting finding from the report, he pointed out, is that people worldwide with the lowest household income also had less confidence in hospitals and health care systems.
  • "This could be a problem" in the U.S., Berkley added, as "this is the community leading some of the populist movements in some places" when people feel disenchanted with the governmental system.
  • Regarding the question on making vaccinations mandatory, "I personally think that is a good strategy, but it's really hard for me to say ... every society needs to decide on that."

Go deeper:

Go deeper

Ina Fried, author of Login
26 mins ago - Technology

Intel CEO sees making own chips as a matter of national security

Pat Gelsinger. Photo: Axios on HBO

Intel CEO Pat Gelsinger is putting the pressure on the U.S. government to help subsidize chip manufacturing, insisting the current reliance on plants in Taiwan and Korea as "geopolitically unstable."

Why it matters: There is bipartisan support for funding the domestic semiconductor industry, but Congress has yet to sign the check. The Senate has passed the CHIPS Act that includes $52 billion in semiconductor investment, but it has yet to pass the House.

Updated 29 mins ago - World

17 U.S. and Canadian missionaries kidnapped in Haiti

Haitian soldiers guard the public prosecutor's office in Port-au-Prince this month. Photo: Richard Pierrin/AFP via Getty Images

Children are among a group of 17 missionaries kidnapped in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, per a statement from Christian Aid Ministries Sunday.

The latest: "The group of 16 U.S citizens and one Canadian citizen includes five men, seven women, and five children," the Ohio-based group said. Haitian police inspector Frantz Champagne on Sunday identified the 400 Mawozo gang as the group responsible, in a statement to AP.

Ina Fried, author of Login
2 hours ago - Technology

Intel CEO wants to compete against Apple

Intel CEO Pat Gelsinger hasn't given up on the idea of the Mac once again using Intel chips, but he acknowledges it will probably be years before he gets that chance.

  • In the meantime, he is focused on powering Windows machines that give Apple CEO Tim Cook a run for his money.

Why it matters: In getting pushed out of the Mac, Intel not only lost a customer but picked up a new rival.