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President Trump's list of nominees to replace outgoing Justice Anthony Kennedy on the Supreme Court skews decisively conservative, per a measure that scores judges on a liberal-conservative spectrum.

Why it matters: Chances are that whomever Trump appoints will be solidly conservative, tipping the balance of the court.

Expand chart
Data: Epstein, Martin, and Quinn, 2016; Chart: Andrew Witherspoon and Harry Stevens/Axios

In November, the Trump administration released its list of 25 potential Supreme Court nominees. Of those, 12 were included in an analysis by political scientists Lee Epstein, Andrew D. Martin, and Kevin Quinn which placed them on an ideological spectrum called the “Judicial Common Space."

Conservative justices receive scores from 0 to 1, while liberal justices receive scores from –1 to 0. Clarence Thomas, currently the most conservative justice, scored at 0.725. Sonia Sotomayor, the most liberal justice, scored –0.521.

None of the potential nominees analyzed in the study are as conservative as Thomas, but all of them score solidly among the conservative wing. One outlier is Thomas Hardiman, a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, who scored as an ideological moderate.

A score of 0 signifies a swing judge who is as likely to favor liberal policies as conservative ones. Kennedy, who just announced his retirement, scored a –0.066. Though nominated by Republican Ronald Reagan, Kennedy often sided with the Court's liberal wing. With his retirement, four liberal justices remain, including 79-year-old Stephen Breyer and 85-year-old Ruth Bader Ginsburg.

Go deeper

In photos: Tokyo Olympics day 9 highlights

Team USA's Ryan Murphy, Zach Apple, Michael Andrew and Caeleb Dressel celebrate winning gold in the final of the men's 4x100m medley relay swimming event during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games at the Tokyo Aquatics Centre in Tokyo on Aug. 1. Photo: Odd Andersen/AFP via Getty Images

Day nine of the Tokyo Olympic Games Sunday saw the final day of swimming competition end with a historic win for Team USA.

The big picture: The U.S. men's 4x100-meter medley relay team set a new record world as they won the final and Caeleb Dressel earned a fifth gold — becoming the fifth American to do so. Team USA's Bobby Finke won the 1,500-meter freestyle.

Trump PACs raise over $82M for first half of 2021

Former President Trump during the Conservative Political Action Conference in Dallas, Texas, on July 11. Photo: Brandon Bell/Getty Images

Former President Trump's political action committees (PACs) raised more than $82 million in the first half of 2021, per Federal Election Commission filings published on Saturday.

Why it matters: It's a significant amount for a former president who's been banned from major social media platforms. It demonstrates his ability to raise huge sums of money should he choose to run for the presidency for a third time.

Updated 6 hours ago - Sports

Olympics dashboard

Team USA's Caeleb Dressel celebrates winning gold in the final of the men's 50m freestyle swimming event at the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Gameson Sunday. Photo: Odd Andersen/AFP via Getty Images

🚨: Simone Biles won't compete in Olympic floor finals, individual vault or uneven bars

🏊: U.S. wins gold in men's 4x100-meter medley relay, earning Caeleb Dressel fifth gold — American Bobby Finke wins gold in men's 1,500-meter freestyle

🏊‍♀️: Katie Ledecky wins gold in women's 800m freestyle

🏌️‍♂️: Golfer Xander Schauffele wins gold for U.S. by one shot

🇬🇧: Britain wins gold in new BMX freestyle category and gold in first-ever Olympic mixed 4x100m medley relay

📷: In photos: Tokyo Olympics day 9 highlights

🏳️‍⚧️: Axios at the Olympics: Games grapple with trans athletesTrans athletes see the Tokyo Games as a watershed moment

Go deeper: Full Axios coverage