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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

For years, we've known that the phones we love and are glued to also record our locations, faces, and fingerprints. And we've understood that the same sensors that serve our individual needs could also, theoretically, be used to conduct surveillance on us.

Driving the news: It's increasingly clear that things have moved from the theoretical to the real, as a pair of reports in the New York Times underscores.

1. One article details how law enforcement in the U.S. has been making use of a trove of location data assembled by Google, called Sensorvault, that helps find both suspects and witnesses to crime.

  • "Anytime a technology company creates a system that could be used in surveillance, law enforcement inevitably comes knocking," writes NYT's Jennifer Valentino-DeVries.
  • "Sensorvault, according to Google employees, includes detailed location records involving at least hundreds of millions of devices worldwide and dating back nearly a decade."

2. The other piece describes how China is using facial recognition to identify and take action against its Uighur Muslim population.

  • The AI-based system, which uses surveillance cameras in public places rather than phones, tracks the minority population's members not only in their home province but when they travel in other Chinese regions.
  • "Using algorithms to label people based on race or ethnicity has become relatively easy," writes NYT's Paul Mozur. "But China has broken new ground by identifying one ethnic group for law enforcement purposes."

Meanwhile, marketers are also stepping up their use of location data to deeply target advertising, as Axios' Sara Fischer reports.

Google has already started to build the next phase of its advertising business around its ability to track users' location in real time. 

  • The company is beefing up the ads served via its real-time navigation app Waze. Waze announced last month that it's parenting with ad giant WPP (via its ad-buying arm GroupM) to help Waze develop new ad formats.
  • In a pitch deck revealed to Digiday last month, the company expanded on its efforts to sell such ads. It said it would sell ads that try to convince drivers to alter their routes by using things like "branded pins" that would guide drivers to nearby stores or restaurants.
  • It has also begun publicly talking about its next big moneymaker: maps. Rajas Moonka, director of product management for Google Maps, told Bloomberg last week, “We want to be able to highlight things that are around you and surface them nearby to you in a way that’s not disrupting your experience."

Why it matters: This data can be used for purposes that some might identify as good and others might find objectionable. But it's most definitely already being used, ever more widely, while our legal systems and personal understandings lag far behind.

Our thought bubble: It's (past) time to start making rules for how this information can and can't be accessed and by whom.

Go deeper: AI surveillance goes to school

Go deeper

Updated 1 min ago - World

Death toll mounts as fighting between Israel and Hamas intensifies

Palestinian Muslims exchange wishes for Eid al-Fitr, marking the end of the fasting month of Ramadan, near a razed building in the northern Gaza Strip town of Beit Lahia, on May 13. Photo: Majdi Fathi/NurPhoto via Getty Images

At least 109 Palestinians and seven people in Israel have been killed since recent fighting between Israel's military and Hamas began Monday.

The big picture: Israel began massing troops on its border with Gaza on Thursday, launching attacks from the air and ground as Hamas continued to fire rockets into Israel.

By the numbers: Where the earmarks are wanted

Expand chart
Data: House Committee on Appropriations; Chart: Danielle Alberti/Axios

The Dallas-Fort Worth area is being targeted for the largest collective earmark request in the country, according to a detailed breakdown of overall requests released by the House Appropriations Committee.

Why it matters: House appropriators are trying to balance bipartisan momentum for infrastructure investment with "pork-barrel" spending's checkered political history. The data dump is an effort to provide transparency for what are now termed "community project funding" requests.

Democrats open to user fees for infrastructure deal

President Biden sits Thursday with Sen. Shelley Moore Capito (R-W.Va.) as they discuss his $2.3 trillion infrastructure proposal. Photo: T.J. Kirkpatrick/The New York Times/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Some Senate Democrats are open to paying for a compromise infrastructure package by imposing user fees, including increasing the gas tax and raising money from electric car drivers through a vehicle-miles-traveled charge.

Why it matters: By inching toward the Republican position on pay-fors, some Democrats are bucking President Biden's push to offset his proposed $2.3 trillion plan by focusing only on raising taxes on corporations and the wealthy.