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Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Snap Inc. has launched an initiative to redesign its core camera technology to make it better able to capture a wide range of skin tones, the company tells Axios.

Why it matters: Around 5 billion pictures are taken using Snapchat's camera each day. Those images form the starting point for how many people see themselves, their friends and their world.

Historically, the chemical processes behind film development used light skin as its chemical baseline — basically optimizing for whiteness, a legacy that continues today, says Snap engineer Bertrand Saint-Preux.

  • "The camera is, in fact, racist," Saint-Preux said.

Between the lines: Film cameras eventually got better at exposing for darker tones, but not as part of a concerted effort to make things more equitable for people. Rather, it was complaints from chocolate makers and photographers shooting other dark subjects that pushed the industry to do better.

  • The early days of digital photography were similarly fraught. Some HP webcams, as well as Microsoft's Kinect, promised the ability to detect faces, but had trouble doing so with people of darker skin tones.
  • Technology, though, has made strides in recent years that should aid the effort, including high dynamic range and the ability to fuse multiple captures to create a single image.

For Snapchat, the "inclusive camera" effort is broader than just capturing dark skin as well as light skin. It means identifying and removing biased assumptions (e.g. that smaller, thinner noses are better) when automatically adjusting people's appearance.

  • The company still wants people to have flexibility, but wants to make a high-quality true image the starting point and then put the controls in the hands of the individual.
  • The companywide effort started with a presentation made to top executives by Saint-Preux last summer in the wake of the George Floyd protests.

How it works: Snap is working with several noted directors of photography from the film industry to learn techniques they use to best capture actors with darker skin tones. Among the projects that are in development or testing:

  • Developing techniques to adjust images after they have been captured, such as correcting brightness and exposure to create a more balanced image.
  • Improving the selfie camera’s ability to capture low light by making adjustments to the front flash. So, for example, if someone was taking a selfie in a dark room, the display would use the right type of lightwaves to properly illuminate their skin tone.
  • Another key area involves machine learning systems and how those systems are optimized. If you tell a computer to optimize for the best average result in photos — which is what many algorithms do — it will make most people appear better and not worry if some people at the margins have a poor result.
  • On the flip side, if you focus on getting the quality of everyone's image above a certain threshold, you will produce a more equitable result.

Yes, but: Snap readily acknowledges its track record is far from perfect. This is the same company that released a digital blackface Bob Marley feature for 4/20 several years ago, and just last year had to apologize for a Juneteenth filter that asked subjects to "smile" while they break free from chains.

  • "We are very mindful of our past mistakes and are applying what we've learned to all of our efforts to build more inclusive design processes, systems and products," Snap told me.

What's next: Snap is working on a variety of efforts that will take longer to bring to market. One part is expanding the inclusive camera effort to other groups, such as ensuring that those with glasses or other assistive aids can fully use the company's filters.

  • Snap is also looking for how it might enable outside developers and partners to take advantage of the tools it is creating internally.

Go deeper

Updated 1 hour ago - Sports

Olympics dashboard

Team USA's Simone Biles during the women's team final on day four of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games at Ariake Gymnastics Centre on Tuesday in Japan. Photo: Fred Lee/Getty Images

🤸🏾‍♀️: Simone Biles reacts to "love and support" after withdrawing from all-around gymnastics and team finals, citing her mental health

🏃: U.S. pole vaulter Sam Kendricks withdraws from Games after positive coronavirus test

🏊‍♂️: Caeleb Dressel wins gold in men's 100m freestyle —Bobby Finke wins gold in first men's Olympic 800m freestyle

📷: In photos: Tokyo Olympics day 6 highlights

🗓: The Olympic events to watch today

💵: Olympic athletes see more sponsorship opportunities

🏃‍: Female Olympians push back against double standard in uniforms

Go deeper: Full Axios coverage - Medal tracker

Felix Salmon, author of Capital
2 hours ago - Economy & Business

Giant earnings growth for the world's largest companies

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Never in the history of capitalism have the world's biggest companies grown as fast as the tech giants in recent years.

Why it matters: A series of stunning earnings reports this week — with another one likely to arrive Thursday afternoon, from Amazon — has underscored the astonishing growth among a group of companies that were already some of the most profitable of all time.

Biden administration outlines goals to slow migration

Vice President Kamala Harris speaks during a press conference in Guatemala City on June 7. Photo: Jim Watson/AFP via Getty Images

Vice President Kamala Harris has big goals for improving conditions in Central America to help slow migration from the region toward the United States.

Driving the news: Senior administration officials unveiled five sweeping goals during a call on Wednesday: Bettering economic prospects; rooting out corruption; promoting human rights, labor rights, and a free press; preventing gang violence; and combating sexual, gender-based and domestic violence.

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