Sign up for our daily briefing

Make your busy days simpler with Axios AM/PM. Catch up on what's new and why it matters in just 5 minutes.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Catch up on the day's biggest business stories

Subscribe to Axios Closer for insights into the day’s business news and trends and why they matter

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Stay on top of the latest market trends

Subscribe to Axios Markets for the latest market trends and economic insights. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sports news worthy of your time

Binge on the stats and stories that drive the sports world with Axios Sports. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Tech news worthy of your time

Get our smart take on technology from the Valley and D.C. with Axios Login. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Get the inside stories

Get an insider's guide to the new White House with Axios Sneak Peek. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Axios on your phone

Get breaking news and scoops on the go with the Axios app.

Download for free.

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Denver news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Denver

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Des Moines news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Des Moines

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Twin Cities news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Twin Cities

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Tampa Bay news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Tampa Bay

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Charlotte news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Charlotte

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sign up for Axios NW Arkansas

Stay up-to-date on the most important and interesting stories affecting NW Arkansas, authored by local reporters

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

The more your job is digitizing, the more you are earning and the greater the chances you will get a raise, according to a new report. In a counter-intuitive finding, there is also slightly greater protection from being automated out of a job.

Why it matters: The report released today by the Brookings Institution dramatizes the financial gulf between those working jobs that have undergone heavy computerization, and those that have not, and adds nuance to the story of income stagnation.

Expand chart

Data: Brookings "Digitalization and the American workforce" report; Interactive: Lazaro Gamio / Axios

The chart: Each arrow tracks workers in an occupation and what they earned on average between 2002 and 2016. Big arrows represent occupations where there are a lot of workers (fast food workers, nurses, accountants) and small arrows show more specialized occupations (tour guides, embalmers, astronomers). The colors reflect how digitized the occupation was in 2016. If an arrow is pointing up and to the right (general and operations managers), that means the number of workers in the occupation grew and wages rose. For some low-digital occupations, the arrows are pointing up and to the left. That means more people are working those jobs and earning less over the year.

The background: Brookings' Mark Muro, Sifan Liu, Jacob Whiton and Siddharth Kulkarni looked at 545 occupations that comprise 90% of the U.S. work force, relying on data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Here are the mean wages last year:

  • $72,896 for workers in highly digital occupations, such as financial managers and software developers;
  • $48,274 in middle-level digital jobs, such as nurses and mechanics; and
  • $30,393 in low-digital positions, such as personal care aides and construction workers.

And the gulf is growing: In 2002, a 1-point increase in a job's digitalization score, as measured by Brookings, predicted a $166.20 rise in annual income in 2016 dollars. By last year, the number had almost doubled to $292.80.

Read these factoids: The incomes of people in highly digitized occupations grew more than 0.8% a year from 2010 to 2016. Middle-digitization meant 0.3% higher pay. But the income of people in low-digitized jobs actually shrunk by 0.2% a year.

Worse news for lesser-digitized jobholders: Nearly 60% of the tasks in such jobs appear to be susceptible to automation, compared to only around 30% in high-digitized occupations, Brookings said.

  • Digitalization scores have significant and positive effects on real annual wages even when controlling for education level. And the effect is growing. In 2002, a one-point increase in digitalization score predicted a $166.20 (in 2016 dollars) increase in real annual average wages for occupations with the same education requirements. By 2016 this wage premium had almost doubled to $292.80.

Another view: In another new survey, Deloitte found that as time goes on, artificial intelligence will cost more jobs.

Go deeper

Minnesota schools "all over the board" with mask-wearing guidance

Illustration: Brendan Lynch/Axios

Minnesota and federal health officials are urging universal masking in schools this fall, but not all local districts are following suit so far.

Driving the news: The Minnesota Department of Health issued new back-to-school guidance Wednesday, encouraging mask use indoors for students and teachers regardless of vaccination status.

  • Unlike last year, the state won't mandate mask use. Decisions will be up to local districts and school boards.
Updated 22 mins ago - Sports

Olympics dashboard

Team USA's Simone Biles during the women's team final on day four of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games at Ariake Gymnastics Centre on Tuesday in Japan. Photo: Fred Lee/Getty Images

🤸🏾‍♀️: Simone Biles reacts to "love and support" after withdrawing from all-around gymnastics and team finals, citing her mental health

🏃: U.S. pole vaulter Sam Kendricks withdraws from Games after positive coronavirus test

🏊‍♂️: Caeleb Dressel wins gold in men's 100m freestyle —Bobby Finke wins gold in first men's Olympic 800m freestyle

📷: In photos: Tokyo Olympics day 6 highlights

🗓: The Olympic events to watch today

💵: Olympic athletes see more sponsorship opportunities

🏃‍: Female Olympians push back against double standard in uniforms

Go deeper: Full Axios coverage - Medal tracker

Felix Salmon, author of Capital
40 mins ago - Economy & Business

Giant earnings growth for the world's largest companies

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Never in the history of capitalism have the world's biggest companies grown as fast as the tech giants in recent years.

Why it matters: A series of stunning earnings reports this week — with another one likely to arrive Thursday afternoon, from Amazon — has underscored the astonishing growth among a group of companies that were already some of the most profitable of all time.