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Illustration: Lazaro Gamio/Axios

North Carolina faced damages of more than $10 billion from Hurricanes Bertha and Fran in 1996, part of a string of disasters that forced the insurance industry to evaluate how much coastal risk it was willing to sustain.

The big picture: Despite wholesale reforms in insurance and increased awareness about future vulnerability for coastal property, developers built 113,000 new homes in coastal North Carolina from 2000-2014, ProPublica notes.

Why it matters: Florence will restart the post-storm hamster wheel. Local officials will mull whether to rebuild or to buy out residents, even with staggering losses for the uninsured and increasing liabilities for those within insurance's broad umbrella.

  • And climate change, which is raising sea levels along the shore and causing more intense inland rainstorms, is only heightening disaster risks.

A different process is playing out in Puerto Rico, the WSJ reports:

  • "Government officials say they don’t want to rebuild communities on land that is vulnerable to soil erosion, chronic flooding and destruction from future storms."
  • “'We need to move families to a safe place,' said Luis Burdiel Agudo, president of the Economic Development Bank for Puerto Rico."
  • "The government is set to receive $20 billion of federal funding to rebuild... It is giving some homeowners an ultimatum between moving and receiving funds to rebuild."

Between the lines: Mainland coastal areas like North Carolina and Houston, Texas, know these dangers exist. So, too, do those living in and governing areas vulnerable to inland flooding from slow-moving tropical storms and hurricanes, such as Harvey and Florence. Their main mechanism is the buyout.

  • "Harris County [Houston] has only bought out about 3,100 properties since 1985. That’s fewer than half the homes on the district's priority buyout list. Hurricane Harvey damaged at least 69,000 properties in the county," ProPublica reports.
  • "North Carolina Gov. Roy Cooper said in a press briefing on Sunday that the state would have to 'look carefully' at buyouts of repeatedly flooded properties," the WSJ notes.

The bottom line: Expect this debate to get worse, with taxpayers on the hook for growing catastrophes and increasingly hot political battles between insurers and homeowners.

Go deeper: Florence updates, where 23 deaths have been reported

Go deeper

Federal court blocks Biden's vaccine mandate for health workers in 10 states

President Biden delivers remarks on the Omicron COVID-19 variant following a meeting with his COVID-19 response team. Photo: Anna Moneymaker via Getty Images

A federal court in Missouri has blocked the Biden administration from enforcing a coronavirus vaccine mandate for health care workers at federally-funded facilities in 10 states.

Why it matters: Monday's decision is the first victory for opponents of the rule, which requires health care workers to get vaccinated by Jan. 4, 2022. The case is one of four lawsuits challenging the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) rule and argues that the mandate will exacerbate staffing shortages.

Twitter's next act

Illustration: Annelise Capossela/Axios

Twitter co-founder and CEO Jack Dorsey is exiting the company he helped build at a time when its future has never been so uncertain.

Why it matters: The person who controls Twitter controls the de facto public square — with implications for politics, media and free speech.

47 mins ago - Health

CDC strengthens COVID booster recommendation

Rochelle Walensky. Photo: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on Monday strengthened its previous recommendation for booster shots, saying that everyone 18 and older "should" receive a booster dose.

Why it matters: Last month, CDC director Rochelle Walensky accepted a key advisory committee's recommendation that adults "may" get the shot. The slight, but strengthened, change in wording comes amid the emergence of the Omicron coronavirus variant.