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FBI Director Christopher Wray speaks to the media during a news conference at FBI Headquarters on June 14, 2018 in Washington, DC. Photo: Mark Wilson/Getty Images

FBI Director Christopher Wray gave a speech today at the Hudson Institute in Washington, D.C. in which he laid out "more detail on the Chinese threat than the FBI has ever presented in an open forum."

Why it matters: China's increasingly aggressive behavior under General Secretary Xi Jinping is ringing alarm bells in the U.S.

Details: Wray described the multi-pronged efforts they have seen from China to take advantage of Americans and of U.S. innovation and technology, including the Equifax hack, theft of sensitive military technology, pressure to self-censor, and economic coercion applied to state and local-level U.S. elected officials.

  • "If you are an American adult, it is more likely than not that China has stolen your personal data. ... Our data isn’t the only thing at stake here — so are our health, our livelihoods, and our security," he said.
  • "We’ve now reached the point where the FBI is opening a new China-related counterintelligence case approximately every ten hours."

Context: Wray's speech is the latest in a series by top U.S. officials about how the Chinese Communist Party threatens U.S. interests and prosperity.

  • White House national security advisor Robert O'Brien emphasized similar points in a speech in Arizona on June 24.
  • Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Attorney General William Barr are also slated to give China-focused remarks within the next few weeks.

Wray said Americans should keep three things in mind:

  1. China's leaders believe they are in a "generational fight" to make China the "world's only superpower by any means necessary."
  2. Beijing uses a diverse set of methods to achieve its goals, including economic espionage, intelligence gathering, pushing for censorship at universities, and "malign foreign influence," referring to covert and coercive attempts to make powerful people advocate for China's interests in the U.S.
  3. China is taking advantage of America's open system, while preserving its own closed system, such as by working through ostensibly private Chinese companies to achieve state goals.

Of note: Wray avoided a phrase he had used several times before in public remarks — that China poses a "whole-of-society" threat to the U.S.

  • This phrase came under heavy criticism from Asian-American groups and others who said it was dangerously over-expansive and could subject Chinese people themselves to needless suspicion.
  • In this speech, Wray instead said that China is taking a "whole-of-state" approach.
  • Yes, but: Wray did call for a "whole-of-society response" to China's efforts.

The bottom line: "All these seemingly inconsequential pressures add up to a policymaking environment in which Americans find themselves held over a barrel by the Chinese Communist Party," Wray said.

Go deeper:

Go deeper

Oct 8, 2020 - World

More countries join condemnation of China over Xinjiang abuses

Data: Axios research; Map: Naema Ahmed/Axios

38 countries joined Germany at the United Nations this week in condemning China's human rights abuses in the northwest region of Xinjiang, where the government is engaged in a sweeping campaign of demographic genocide against Uighur Muslims and other ethnic minorities.

Why it matters: Statements like this one provide a sense of which countries are willing to challenge China over human rights, and which are lining up behind Beijing.

1 hour ago - World

Social Democrats' win in Germany could shake up Europe

Olaf Scholz caught the bouquet on Sunday. Photo: Florian Gaertner/Photothek via Getty

BERLIN Angela Merkel's political farewell was spoiled Sunday night when the Social Democrats (SPD) narrowly claimed victory in Germany's elections, just four years after suffering their worst loss since World War II.

Why it matters: The stunning political comeback could swing the balance of power in Germany leftward after 16 years of rule by Merkel's conservative bloc, and it could lay the groundwork for a more ambitious European Union.

2 hours ago - Politics & Policy

Senate Republicans sink short-term government funding, debt limit bill

Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell. Photo: Drew Angerer/Getty Images

Senate Republicans on Monday voted down the House-passed bill to fund the government through Dec. 3 and raise the debt limit.

Why it matters: Congress is just 72 hours away from a potential shutdown, so now comes Democrats' Plan B. Democratic leadership is expected strip the short-term funding bill of language about raising the debt limit — the part that Republicans' reject — in order to pass a bill before federal agencies close down on Friday.