The debate around prescription drug prices — including the Trump administration's proposal tying some Medicare drug prices to what other countries pay — raises an important question: How do other countries decide what to pay for drugs?

Why it matters: A recent World Health Organization report on cancer drugs, which found that cancer drugs' high cost is largely unjustified by development costs, detailed a handful of methods other countries use.

  • Cost-based pricing: A price is calculated by totaling the costs of producing the drug and then adding a profit margin.
  • Value-based pricing: A price is determined by the worth individuals and society place on the medicine. Measures of value can include need for the medicine, clinical evidence, economic and financial impact and innovativeness.
  • Reference pricing: This method uses benchmark prices to determine the price of a new drug, either from other countries or from a group of comparable medicines.
  • Tendering: This is a bidding process where the winning supplier is awarded a contract.
  • Negotiation: Often used in combination with the other pricing approaches to reach a deal between payers and suppliers.
  • Some countries also regulate markups along the drug supply and distribution chains.

The bottom line: All of these methods are complicated and have their own drawbacks, but the question of how to regulate drug prices has been asked and answered many times before.

Go deeper: U.S. drug prices don't translate to better health

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Most arrested in protests are not associated with antifa

Protesters demonstrate as a Salt Lake City police vehicle burns on May 30. Photo: Rick Bowmer/AP

Antifa may be a focus on the right, but it's hard to find in the court system.

Why it matters: Very few of the people charged in this summer's protests and riots appear to be affiliated with highly organized extremist groups, reports AP.

25 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Scoop: Republican super PAC raised $92 million in September

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. Photo: The Washington Post/Getty Images

The Senate Leadership Fund, a super PAC associated with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, raised more than twice as much this September as it did two years ago, according to an FEC filing that will go live Tuesday night.

By the numbers: The SLF raised $92 million in September, spent $105 million, and ended the month with $113 million cash on hand, as Republicans work to maintain their majority on Nov. 3.

Erica Pandey, author of @Work
26 mins ago - Economy & Business

The evolution of HR

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Before the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, human resources jobs were on the automation chopping block. Now they're essential.

The big picture: HR departments across the world have pulled off the incredible feat of turning companies from in-person to remote overnight, and as the pandemic continues to determine the future of work, HR has been elevated from a back-office function to a C-suite conversation.