A stop Brexit billboard is driven around Parliament Square, London. Photo: Kirsty O'Connor/PA Images via Getty Images

An analysis by UBS estimates that the United Kingdom's GDP is 2.1% lower than it would have been had the country voted to remain in the European Union, reports Bloomberg.

The big picture: Brexit won't take effect until March of next year, but the study suggests uncertainty surrounding trade and potential supply chain disruptions has already resulted in lower investment (down 4%) and consumption (down 1.7%). With negotiations stalled ahead of a November deadline, the U.K. has officially begun preparing for the far-reaching economic and social consequences of a "no deal Brexit."

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Why it matters: People won't feel safe returning to schools, offices, bars and restaurants unless they can be assured they won't be infected by coronavirus particles lingering in the air — or being pumped through the buildings' air ducts. One day, even office furniture lined with plants could be used to clean air in cubicles.

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Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

  1. Global: Total confirmed cases as of 5 a.m. ET: 13,113,181 — Total deaths: 573,288 — Total recoveries — 7,268,022Map.
  2. U.S.: Total confirmed cases as of 5 a.m. ET: 3,364,547— Total deaths: 135,615 — Total recoveries: 1,031,939 — Total tested: 40,282,176Map.
  3. World: WHO head: There will be no return to the "old normal" for foreseeable future — Hong Kong Disneyland closing again.
  4. States: Houston mayor proposes two-week shutdownCalifornia orders sweeping rollback of open businesses — Cuomo says New York will use formula to determine if reopening schools is safe.
  5. Education: Los Angeles schools' move to online learning could be a nationwide tipping point.