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Photo: BSIP/Contributor/Getty

In two years observing surgeons in teaching hospitals, social scientist Matthew Beane noticed something troubling: doctors were finishing their residencies licensed to use robots in the operating room, but most were barely trained to do so.

The big picture: At fault, Beane reported, is how hospitals have introduced machines and artificial intelligence to the workplace — a way that has left a large part of the new generation of doctors lacking crucial surgery skills.

Driving the news: In new research, Beane found that across high-skill occupations — in law enforcement, banking and more — the early age of applied AI and robots is leaving young professionals unprepared for their new jobs.

  • Beane's results, though perhaps reflecting the type of growing pains experienced by most major new technologies, are a cautionary tale to companies as they tinker with robots and AI that some experts believe will fundamentally disrupt society.

The background: In surgery, you need four hands — the surgeon's own, plus those of a resident to pull and hold once an incision is made. Even six hands may be required — a second resident.

  • But with DaVinci, the standard operating room robot, surgeons can manage procedures alone with hand and foot controls — and Beane found they typically do, mostly with the objective of efficiency and reducing mistakes.
  • "So the resident gets 10 to 20 times less practice," said Beane, a professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara. "Most residents by and large leave without knowing how to use this tool. They are licensed to use it, but not practiced."

Benjamin Shestakofsky, a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, tells Axios that he found a similar dynamic in software development.

  • For his dissertation, Shestakofsky spent 19 months with a San Francisco startup that, while creating a jobs website, outsourced contact with customers. Thus, no one at the company learned the core competency of using personal diplomacy to bring a blockbuster product to market.
  • "When you are creating something, customers using it are likely to have all sorts of reactions that the designers didn't anticipate," Shestakofsky said. "It's a real skill in large part learned on the job — how to interact with people."

The same thing is happening in low-skill occupations. Over the coming years, robots could take the jobs of tens of thousands of warehouse and other workers. But so far at least, few such workers have been trained as specialists to be teamed with the robots.

  • Jeffrey Brown, head of AI and future of work at the Bertelsmann Foundation, cited the example of Riverside County, California, a logistics hub for southern California that has more than a dozen "mega-warehouses" measuring more than 1 million square feet.
  • These warehouses in total employ roughly 15,000 people. But the introduction of robots will reduce that over the next decade or two to about 3,000 robot technicians and maintenance workers, Brown said.
  • "There is concern about skill atrophy. People are being shunted into work not requiring human competencies like working with clients."

Go deeper

Dan Primack, author of Pro Rata
20 mins ago - Economy & Business

IPO market holds firm amid stock market tumult

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

The IPO market is doing its best Alfred E. Neuman impression so far this week, refusing to entertain everyone else's worries.

The big picture: Both the Dow and S&P 500 fell nearly 2% yesterday, as investors tried to measure the fallout of Chinese construction giant Evergrande defaulting on its $300 billion in liabilities.

2 hours ago - World

Sudanese government says it put down coup attempt

Prime Minister Abdullah Hamdok (L) and Sovereign Council Chief Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan. Photo: Ashraf Shazly/AFP via Getty

The Sudanese government announced on Tuesday morning that its military and security services had foiled an attempted coup from within the country’s armed forces.

Why it matters: The apparent coup attempt comes with Sudan’s transitional government — in which power is shared between civilians and generals — facing crises on several fronts two years after dictator Omar al-Bashir was toppled in a popular uprising.

2 hours ago - Health

Johnson & Johnson says booster shot increases efficacy of COVID vaccine

Syringes and a vial of the Johnson and Johnson COVID-19 vaccine in French Polynesia on Sept. 8. Photo: Jerome Brouillet/AFP via Getty Images

Johnson & Johnson said in a press release Tuesday a global study showed that the protection offered by its coronavirus vaccine was strengthened by a booster shot.

Why it matters: While J&J has not formally applied for authorization to offer booster shots to the general public, it said it has shared the results of the study with the Food and Drug Administration and plans to share it with the World Health Organization and other health regulators.