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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

Demand for pet dogs is far outstripping supply, and the imbalance is expected to worsen as young adults consider dog ownership a normal life stage (before kids), dog breeders face increasing regulation and the U.S. cracks down on illegal dog imports.

Why it matters: Rabies and other diseases that can jump from dogs to humans are cropping up in places where they were all but eradicated, a result of unscrupulous imports from countries with looser hygiene laws and health oversight.

Driving the news: On June 14, the CDC issued a temporary suspension of the importation of dogs from more than 100 countries deemed at high risk for rabies, including Egypt, India, China, Russia and Ukraine.

  • At the same time, the Healthy Dog Importation Act — a bipartisan bill recently introduced in the House and the Senate — would require that every dog coming to the U.S. have a health certificate with proof of vaccinations issued by a properly licensed veterinarian.

By the numbers: While the U.S. imports more than 1 million dogs a year, the annual demand for dogs — imported or not— is 8 million.

  • The American Pet Products Association released its biennial pet owners' survey in June, showing that "pet ownership has increased from an estimated 67% of U.S. households that own a pet to an estimated 70%" over the prior survey.
  • Millennials were the largest cohort of pet owners, at 32%, followed by Boomers at 27% and Gen X at 24%.

What they're saying: "People are shocked when they hear the number of dogs that have been imported to the U.S.," Sheila Goffe, vice president of government relations for the American Kennel Club, tells Axios.

  • "Some are going to pet stores, some are going to shelters, a lot are being sold online."
  • Goffe says the USDA and U.S. Border Patrol are ill-equipped to police batches of dogs that arrive in the U.S. in groups as big as 40 or 50, with fake health certificates that have been photocopied.

Context: The number of dogs going to shelters and being euthanized has plummeted over the last 50 years, thanks to the success of spay-and-neuter programs and the rise of "responsible dog ownership," in which people commit to keeping a dog for life.

  • "There just are not enough dogs entering shelters" to meet demand, says Patti Strand, president and founder of the National Animal Interest Alliance, who has bred Dalmatians for 52 years.
  • While shady "puppy mills" do exist, most domestic breeders are highly ethical but are being squeezed by state and local laws that limit conditions for breeding dogs, according to Goffe and Strand.
  • The "canine freedom trail" is one of many programs through which people transport dogs from states where shelters are full or crowded (like Texas and Alabama) to states where there aren't enough adoptable dogs (like New Jersey and Minnesota).

Goffe and Strand say notions that shelters are overcrowded or that it's wrong to get a dog from a breeder are outdated.

  • Today, it is primarily sick or dangerous dogs that are euthanized — and when you "rescue" a dog from a shelter, the animal may simply be a foreign import that was brought to the U.S. to slake demand.

What's next: The dearth of available dogs will worsen — as will shortages of veterinarians and veterinary technicians, predicts Mark Cushing, head of the consultancy Animal Policy Group and author of the 2020 book "Pet Nation."

  • Cushing says the mental health benefits of pet ownership are inestimable, as so many people have discovered during the pandemic. "Pets aren’t a fad, so we’re still in the beginning phase — and that will stun some people — of this surge of continuing demand for pets," he tells Axios.
  • "People with one dog will get a second dog. People with one cat will get a second, or they’ll get a different species.”

Go deeper

Aug 26, 2021 - Axios Denver

Pandemic pets are crowding Colorado animal shelters

Photo: Andy Cross/The Denver Post via Getty Images

Animal shelters are offering discounted dog and cat adoptions over the next several weeks to combat overcrowding caused by the pandemic.

  • The limited-time deals are part of an annual nationwide "Clear the Shelters" event that draws participation from more than 1,000 organizations, including about a dozen in Colorado this year.

Why it matters: The timing of the campaign coincides with a wave of incoming pandemic pets that local shelters have long been bracing for, multiple shelters in the Denver metro area tell Axios.

Aug 26, 2021 - Politics & Policy

New PAWS law to help veterans with PTSD get service dogs

A service dog at training at the Paws of War office in Nesconset, Long Island, New York . Photo: Johannes Eisele/AFP via Getty Images

President Biden signed a bill into law Wednesday that's designed to make service dogs more accessible to veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental health conditions.

Why it matters: The Department of Veterans Affairs estimates that an average of 18 vets die by suicide every day in the U.S. Research by Kaiser Permanente and Purdue University veterans with PTSD can benefit physiologically from using service dogs.

Stock buybacks boom as corporate cash piles grow

The Delta variant is keeping more companies cautious about how to invest the mountains of cash they have at their disposal. That hesitancy has led, in part, to corporate spending on stock buybacks outpacing capital expenditures this year. 

Why it matters: Companies hoarded cash and raised prices over the past year — leaving them with a lot of money and decisions about what to do with it.