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Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

The threat posed by space junk is growing — and the window for mitigating it is closing. Experts say the U.S. hasn't done enough to combat the growing problem.

Why it matters: Companies like SpaceX are working to launch hundreds of small satellites to already crowded orbits. Even if just a small percentage of them fail, it could put other satellites in danger, costing companies and governments millions of dollars and making parts of space unusable.

  • The space junk problem "shares many of the same challenges with climate change," the Secure World Foundation's Brian Weeden told Axios. "You're asking for people to bear some additional cost and restrictions now to forestall much bigger problems in the future."

Where it stands: The defense department tracks more than 20,000 pieces of space junk and operational satellites, but there are millions of other small pieces of debris that slip under the radar and could threaten assets in orbit.

  • Two years ago, President Trump signed Space Policy Directive-3 (SPD-3), triggering a reorganization of how the U.S. tracks space junk and satellites, with plans to house it within the Department of Commerce instead of the Department of Defense.
  • That change was designed to allow the commerce department to leverage private companies that are tracking satellites and space debris to create a more accurate — and accessible — database of tracking data.
  • However, Congress has yet to allocate the additional funding to make the changes outlined in the directive.

Between the lines: Experts agree that SPD-3 is a good place to start when it comes to creating a space traffic management system but stress that Congress' inaction threatens U.S. leadership on regulation and policy.

  • Keeping satellites safe in orbit is an international endeavor that requires wide-ranging cooperation from every nation and company with a stake in orbit.
  • "We're not stepping up to the plate, and we're going to lose or continue to cede ground when it comes to the leadership of this," James Cooper, an engineer working on space tracking at the aerospace software company AGI, told Axios.
  • Falling behind in tracking and management also puts national security satellites and other assets in jeopardy.

The big picture: Various organizations follow their own best practices when it comes to space junk management and preventing the creation of it.

  • But it's not clear how the government will be able to enforce consequences for breaking regulations around space junk.
  • "Every Tom, Dick and Harry has a best practices [document], but so what? What about implementation and consequences for not following this stuff?" space tracking expert Moriba Jah told Axios.
  • If nations don't step up to collaborate and keep the space junk problem under control through enforcement, then it won't ruin parts of orbit for just one nation. All will be affected.

What to watch: There are currently no firm plans for wide-ranging debris mitigation efforts from governments, and it's not yet clear if companies aiming for that kind of cleanup will be able to make their business models work.

Go deeper

Radiation-proofing the human body for long-term space travel

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Researchers are working to find new ways to protect the human body from radiation in space in order to allow people to live far from Earth for years at a time.

Why it matters: Big thinkers like Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos believe that one day people will be living and working in space, on the Moon and even on Mars for years at a time, but humans aren’t made to stand up for long to the extreme radiation environment they’ll face off Earth.

In photos: Protesters rally for George Floyd ahead of Derek Chauvin's trial

Chaz Neal, a Redwing community activist, outside the Minnesota Governor's residence during a protest in support of George Floyd in St.Paul, Minnesota, on March 6. Photo: Kerem Yucel/AFP via Getty Images

Dozens of protesters were rallying outside the Minnesota governor's mansion in St Paul Saturday, urging justice for George Floyd ahead of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin's trial over the 46-year-old's death.

The big picture: Chauvin faces charges for second-degree murder and manslaughter over Floyd's death last May, which ignited massive nationwide and global protests against racism and for police reform. His trial is due to start this Monday, with jury selection procedures.