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Illustration: Rebecca Zisser/Axios

AI and robots are capable of both decimating and improving human work. By and large, they're doing the former. That’s in part because AI researchers are mostly creating systems that leapfrog human abilities, rather than do what humans cannot.

The big picture: By changing incentives that currently encourage the development of technologies that compete with people, experts hope to redirect the future of work away from widespread automation-fueled job loss.

As we reported this week, economists Daron Acemoglu and Pascual Restrepo have found AI and robotics are destroying more jobs than they are creating.

  • But "it doesn't have to be this way," the pair wrote. AI has the potential to improve work and create new jobs — but for that to happen, researchers and companies would need to shift the direction of their work, and quickly.

Details: Most progress in AI and robotics is measured against humans.

  • Every researcher wants to be able to say their invention can beat grandmasters at an age-old game, or drive more safely than the average adult. That extends to basic research, too. From machine vision to speech synthesis, the big question is: Can you do it better than a person?
  • These tasks are easier to benchmark and they’re easier for computers to master, says Andrew Ng, a Stanford professor who founded Google's and Baidu's AI efforts.
  • So for an expert deciding what problem to tackle next — one that, if solved, would bring them honor and glory at a top AI conference — all arrows point toward making a system that beats humans at their own game.

The problem with this obsession: "If your goal is human-level capability, you're increasing the probability that you're doing substitutive work," says James Manyika, director of the McKinsey Global Institute. That is, you're replacing humans.

  • "If you were trying to solve this as an economic problem, you'd want to develop AI algorithms or machines that are as different from humans as possible," Manyika tells Axios.
  • That's the sort of research that would move computers from an automating, human-replacing role to enabling new, labor-intensive work — these complementary systems would require humans.

Some examples of current research that would not replace humans:

  • Augmented reality, a fundamentally assistive technology that can boost a wearer's productivity in a way that's hard to measure.
  • AI systems that can predict how proteins are folded, or how to route trucks better — problems that are just too complex for humans to ever figure out on their own.
  • Robots that can see around corners, or register sounds outside our hearing range.

Two weeks ago, Manyika and MIT economist Erik Brynjolfsson convened top economists and AI researchers, including Ng, at Stanford to discuss how to encourage work in complementary AI. Manyika and Brynjolfsson will publish some of the resulting ideas in a forthcoming paper.

The bottom line: Both complementary and substitutive AI will end up entering, and fundamentally changing, the workplace. In many cases, substitutive technology will likely be cheaper — and much less fussy — than human workers.

  • In the long run, replacing people can sometimes be positive, argues Frank Chen, a partner at the prominent VC firm Andreessen Horowitz.
  • In high-stakes situations, like diagnosing diseases or sentencing criminals, an automated system that's more stable, consistent, hardy, or potentially unbiased is far superior to a wishy-washy person, he says.

The big question: How these substitutive technologies will be balanced with new, labor-creating technologies.

Go deeper: AI's uneasy coming of age

Go deeper

First-time homebuyers shrink as prices spike

Data: National Association of Realtors; Chart: Axios Visuals

Home sales cooled as prices continued to heat up in August.

Driving the news: The share of first-time existing homebuyers (29%) last month was the smallest in two years, according to new data from the National Association of Realtors.

Mike Allen, author of AM
1 hour ago - World

Airbnb doubles number of Afghan refugees it will house to 40,000

Afghan refugees arriving at Dulles International Airport in Virginia in August 2021. Photo: Kent Nishimura/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images

Airbnb CEO Brian Chesky and co-founder Joe Gebbia said during a visit to Washington on Wednesday that they're offering temporary housing to 40,000 Afghan refugees worldwide, doubling a previous commitment.

The big picture: The housing typically lasts several weeks, and Airbnb and Airbnb.org provide subsidies to hosts.

Florida lawmaker introduces abortion bill modeled after Texas law

A view of the old Florida Capitol building, which sits in front of the current new Capitol building, in Tallahassee. Photo: Mark Wallheiser/Getty Images

A Florida lawmaker introduced a bill Wednesday modeled after Texas' new law prohibiting abortions after a fetal heartbeat is detected, or roughly six weeks — before many people know they are pregnant.

Why it matters: Similar bills introduced to the Florida legislature have failed, but that was before the Supreme Court declined to block Texas' law, which is the most restrictive abortion law to be enforced since the Supreme Court's Roe v. Wade decision legalized abortion nationwide in 1973, according to AP.