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Data: Forest coverage and deforestation from Hansen, et al. 2020 version 1.8. Croplands from ESA Copernicus Land Cover 2019. Map: Carl Churchill, Woodwell Climate Research Center

With a global initiative on deforestation announced in Glasgow Monday, there's a spotlight shining on places like the Amazon.

  • Researchers say that land status, such as whether a swath of rainforest is within a protected reserve or recognized indigenous lands, can be the determining factor in deforestation.

Why it matters: Due to land clearing for agriculture or other uses, parts of the Amazon have already passed a tipping point from a net absorber of carbon emissions to a net source, and the pace of deforestation has increased in recent years, threatening the Paris Agreement's temperature targets.

Context: The map above, by cartographer Carl Churchill of the Woodwell Climate Research Center in Massachusetts, shows the Amazon ecoregion of South America.

  • Protected lands as of 2020 are seen in yellow. The area affected by deforestation in the last 20 years is visible in darker gray.
  • For comparison, rainforest cover as of the year 2000 is also included (green). 
  • Major cities in the Brazilian Amazon are also depicted, as well as a figure showing the Brazilian states the basin covers. 

The bottom line: Much of the deforestation in the Amazon during the past two decades has occurred outside protected lands.

Go deeper

Small business holds key to tech's antitrust fate

Illustration: Annelise Capossela/Axios

Big Tech giants and their adversaries are both trying to enlist a powerful constituency in their battle over looming antitrust legislation: small businesses.

Why it matters: Small businesses can have outsize sway with Washington lawmakers, and the fight for their support will shape the fate of Congress' crusade to limit tech power.

Updated 56 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Congressional leaders clinch support for crucial defense bill, debt limit votes

Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer passes waiting reporters on Tuesday. Photo: Eric Lee/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Congress has found a shortcut to pass its annual defense funding bill and raise the debt limit.

Driving the news: The House voted Tuesday night on two major bills — one creating a one-time, fast-track process for the Senate to raise the debt ceiling with just 51 votes, and another passing its annual defense bill.

House passes annual defense bill

Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi. Photo: Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

The House voted to pass the annual defense bill 363-70 on Tuesday night, authorizing nearly $770 billion in funding for defenses and national security programs.

Why it matters: The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) still has to clear the Senate, but the House passage greatly increases the chances that the must-pass defense bill will move through both chambers of Congress before the end of the year.

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