File photo: Vishal Bhatnagar/NurPhoto via Getty Images

Pakistan's military said Tuesday night it had "shot down two Indian aircraft inside Pakistani airspace" in the disputed Kashmir region.

Quick take: Pakistan said two Indian pilots had been taken into custody following the incident, the Associated Press reports. The Pakistani Civil Aviation Authority had also shut its airspace to all commercial flights, as tensions between the two nuclear-armed U.S. allies continue to flare up.

Backstory: The escalation in cross-border tension follows Indian airstrikes inside Pakistan on Monday, which it said were in response to an earlier attack by Pakistani militants in Kashmir.

  • "We have no intention of escalation, but are fully prepared to do so if forced into that paradigm," Pakistan's Foreign Ministry said, according to Bloomberg. "That is why we undertook the action with clear warning and in broad daylight."

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Bryan Walsh, author of Future
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Synthetic biology startups raised some $3 billion through the first half of 2020, up from $1.9 billion for all of 2019, as the field brings the science of engineering to the art of life.

The big picture: Synthetic biologists are gradually learning how to program the code of life the way that computer experts have learned to program machines. If they can succeed — and if the public accepts their work — synthetic biology stands to fundamentally transform how we live.

Biden will allow lobbyists to join transition team

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Joe Biden's presidential transition office will allow lobbyists to help shape his potential administration, but will require them to receive a waiver to participate if they engaged in lobbying activity in the last twelve months.

Why it matters: Presidential transition teams are instrumental in establishing a new administration, and the rules that govern them are often a template for the ethics guidelines that the new administration imposes after the inauguration.

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