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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

There are 3 broad groups of on-demand economy workers, according to Alexandrea Ravenelle, who interviewed some 80 workers for her book, Hustle and Gig: Struggling and Surviving in the Sharing Economy.

Details: The groups are: Strugglers, down on their luck; perhaps they find themselves unable to put their expensive college degrees to use; Strivers, supplementing their salaries and trying to get one rung higher on the economic ladder; Success Stories, who see entrepreneurial opportunity.

What they're saying: For Mark Ferguson, delivering food orders for DoorDash was a means to an end shortly after getting separated and needing extra cash — but he tells Axios it's "not a career" and "there's no ladder to climb."

"On one hand, I do kind of enjoy the change of pace from the typical email and spreadsheets and the 3pm marketing meeting... [But] if you think this is a full-time job and you can make it -- you're fooling yourself. These platforms are here to make money and they will find out the absolute bottom before workers don't show up."

The bottom line: "Even though it's marketed as the height of advancement and app-driven modernity," writes Ravenelle, "for many, gig work is what happens when there are no other options."

Go deeper:

Go deeper

13 hours ago - Health

FDA advisory panel recommends Pfizer boosters for those 65 and older

A healthcare worker prepares a dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 vaccine at the Key Biscayne Community Center on Aug. 24, 2021. Photo: Eva Marie Uzcategui/Bloomberg via Getty Images

A key Food and Drug Administration advisory panel on Friday overwhelmingly voted against recommending Pfizer vaccine booster shots for younger Americans, but unanimously recommended approving the third shots for individuals 65 and older, as well as those at high-risk of severe COVID-19.

Why it matters: While the votes are non-binding, and the FDA must still make a final decision, Friday's move pours cold water on the Biden administration's plan to begin administering boosters to most individuals who received the Pfizer vaccine later this month.

14 hours ago - World

France recalls ambassadors from U.S. and Australia over submarine deal

Secretary of State Antony Blinken (L), French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian (C), and French ambassador to the U.S. Philippe Etienne. Photo: Nicholas Kamm/AFP via Getty Images

France has taken the extraordinary step of recalling its ambassadors to the U.S. and Australia after both countries blindsided their French allies with a new military pact and submarine contract, the French Foreign Ministry announced on Friday.

The backstory: While sealing an agreement with the U.S. and U.K. to acquire nuclear submarines, Australia ripped up an existing $90 billion submarine deal with France. That led senior French officials to accuse the U.S. of a "stab in the back."

Updated 14 hours ago - World

In reversal, Pentagon now says drone strike killed 10 Afghan civilians

Caskets for the dead are carried towards the gravesite as relatives and friends attend a mass funeral for members of a family that is said to have been killed in a U.S. drone airstrike, in Kabul on Aug. 30. Photo: Marcus Yam/Los Angeles Times via Getty Images

A U.S. drone strike launched on Aug. 29 killed 10 civilians in Afghanistan, including seven children, rather than the Islamic State extremists the Biden administration claimed it targeted, the Pentagon said Friday.

Why it matters: U.S. Central Command said at the time that officials "know" the drone strike "disrupted an imminent ISIS-K threat" to Kabul's airport, and that they were "confident we successfully hit the target."

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