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Mars as seen by the Curiosity rover. Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

After decades of sending missions to Mars, NASA is now zeroing in on regions of the red planet that they think have the best chance of determining whether the world has hosted — or hosts — life.

The big picture: Scientists are now able to point to parts of Mars that were once likely wet and warm, with geological signatures similar to the rivers, deltas and lakes on Earth — upping the odds that those parts of Mars could have once been friendly to life.

"Habitable and inhabited are two very different questions. You can build a house and you can furnish it nicely and put food in the fridge, but that doesn't mean someone lives there."
— NASA's Melissa Trainer to Axios

Driving the news: A new study finds NASA's Mars 2020 rover will land in an area that could be the perfect place to hunt for the fossilized evidence of past life.

  • The landing site — known as the Jezero Crater — once was home to a long-lived lake and river delta billions of years ago.
  • The rim of the crater could be rich with carbonates, which can help preserve signs of ancient life in fossilized form.
  • The Mars 2020 rover is expected to investigate the possible rock deposits and explore the delta that once fed the lake in the crater.

Meanwhile: Last week, NASA announced that Curiosity — which found Mars was habitable for microbial life in the past — detected a small amount of oxygen on Mars, but no one is quite sure where it's coming from.

  • The discovery adds to the mystery around the rover's possible detection of methane also reported earlier this year.

Yes, but: It's possible methane and oxygen could have been created through natural geological processes that have nothing to do with life.

  • Finding the origins of these molecules is exceedingly difficult, scientists say, without other pieces of evidence that point to living things on Mars.
  • Parsing out whether a methane molecule came from a living thing or geology could involve digging into its isotopic composition, but even then, it's not a sure-fire way to confirm the origins of the detection, scientists say.
  • The 2020 rover is planning to cache rock samples for eventual return to Earth on a future mission in order to confirm any possible discovery that points to life.
"There's always this uncertainty when we look at Mars."
— NASA scientist Lindsay Hays to Axios

Go deeper:

Go deeper

Updated 4 hours ago - Sports

The potential GOAT of chess faces intriguing challenger

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

The World Chess Championship between Norway's Magnus Carlsen and Russia's Ian Nepomniachtchi began on Friday, 1,094 days after Carlsen won his fourth consecutive title.

Why it matters: During the long, COVID-fueled layoff, chess entered a new era, and with the championship finally here, the age-old game is ready for its close-up.

Department of Interior proposes raising cost of drilling on public lands

A horizontal drilling rig and a pump jack sit on federal land in Lea County, New Mexico. Photo: Callaghan O'Hare/Bloomberg via Getty Images

Oil and gas companies should pay more to drill on federal lands and waters, the Department of the Interior argued in a report released Friday, saying that the current rates were "outdated."

Driving the news: The Department of Interior report said that the federal government's oil and gas leasing and permitting program "fails to provide a fair return to taxpayers, even before factoring in the resulting climate-related costs that must be borne by taxpayers."

6 hours ago - Health

U.S. to restrict air travel from 8 countries over new COVID variant concerns

A COVID-19 vaccine is administered. Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images

The U.S. will impose new air travel restrictions in response to the Omicron variant, a new COVID strain first detected in South Africa, President Biden announced Friday.

The big picture: Air travel from South Africa, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Lesotho, Eswatini, Mozambique and Malawi will be restricted starting on Monday.