Our Axios Voices conversation on geoengineering.

These questions highlight the difficulties we will have in making a decision on geoengineering.

What do we need to know? As much as we possibly can. A choice to try geoengineering will always involve comparing the risk of human-induced climate change to the risk of human-induced climate change plus geoengineering. The more we know, the more accurate we can be about those risks.

What choices we might have: Any choice to do a geoengineering experiment — be it a small study or a deployment that would modify world climate — should involve comparing the expected gains in knowledge or climate benefits to the risks of the action.

Bottom line: Cutting carbon emissions should be tried first and foremost. (The best way to solve a problem is not to have it!) But we also need to investigate which geoengineering technologies might best compliment those efforts. Geoengineering should be thought of as one strategic element in the tool box for dealing with climate change. It should never be invoked as a stand alone technology that obviates cleaning up our energy system.

Other voices in the conversation:

Go deeper

Updated 17 mins ago - World

In photos: Unrest in Italy as coronavirus restrictions grow across Europe

An anti-government demonstration against the economic consequences of the new measures in Turin, Italy, where luxury stores were "ransacked," on Oct. 26, the Guardian reports. Photo: Diego Puletto/Getty Images

Protests in Italy against fresh COVID-19 pandemic restrictions that came into effect Monday descended into violence in Milan and and Turin, where police used tear gas to disperse demonstrators, per the Guardian.

The big picture: The protests in Italian cities still reeling from the first lockdown mark some of the biggest resistance against measures seen yet as restrictions return across Europe, which is facing a second coronavirus wave. From Denmark to Romania, this is what's been happening, in photos.

Updated 1 hour ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Politics: The swing states where the pandemic is raging — Pence no longer expected to attend Barrett confirmation vote after COVID exposure.
  2. Health: 13 states set single-day case records last week
  3. Business: Where stimulus is needed most.
  4. Education: The dangerous instability of school re-openings.
  5. States: Nearly two dozen Minnesota COVID cases traced to 3 Trump campaign events
  6. World: Restrictions grow across Europe.
  7. Media: Fox News president and several hosts advised to quarantine.

Republicans and Dems react to Coney Barrett's Supreme Court confirmation

President Trump stands with Judge Amy Coney Barrett after she took the constitutional oath to serve as a Supreme Court justice during a White House ceremony Monday night .Photo: Tasos Katopodis/Getty Images)

President Trump said Judge Amy Coney Barrett's Senate confirmation to the Supreme Court and her subsequent taking of the constitutional oath Monday was a "momentous day," as she she vowed to serve "without any fear or favour."

  • But as Republicans applauded the third conservative justice in four years, many Democrats including Speaker Nancy Pelosi (Calif.) warned of consequences to the rush to replace the late Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg ahead of the Nov. 3 election, with progressives leading calls to expand the court.