Sign up for our daily briefing

Make your busy days simpler with Axios AM/PM. Catch up on what's new and why it matters in just 5 minutes.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Stay on top of the latest market trends

Subscribe to Axios Markets for the latest market trends and economic insights. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sports news worthy of your time

Binge on the stats and stories that drive the sports world with Axios Sports. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Tech news worthy of your time

Get our smart take on technology from the Valley and D.C. with Axios Login. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Get the inside stories

Get an insider's guide to the new White House with Axios Sneak Peek. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Denver news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Denver

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Des Moines news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Des Moines

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Twin Cities news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Twin Cities

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Tampa Bay news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Tampa Bay

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Charlotte news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Charlotte

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Kim Jong-un. STR / AFP / Getty Images

After a historic face-to-face meeting, North Korea's Kim Jong-un and South Korea's Moon Jae-in announced their intention to move towards a peace deal between their two countries, which have technically been at war since the 1950s.

But there’s reason for skepticism: The diplomatic history shows that apparent breakthroughs and shows of good will have proved fleeting. Peace would have to be accompanied by denuclearization, something Pyongyang has repeatedly declined to follow through on.

The diplomatic history

1985-1992: North Korea agrees to the nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) but doesn’t abide by a safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  • How it falls apart: The U.S. sanctions two entities in North Korea.

1993: After finding discrepancies in North Korea’s declaration of its nuclear materials, the IAEA requests to inspect sites in North Korea, which Pyongyang refuses.

  • How it falls apart: Pyongyang threatens to withdraw from the NPT.

1994: The U.S. and North Korea hammer out the “Agreed Framework." This halts North Korea’s decision to withdraw from the NPT and freezes its nuclear program in exchange for energy aid.

  • How it falls apart: In 2002 the framework falls apart, with alleged violations from both countries.

2003: Six-party talks between North Korea, South Korea, China, the U.S., Japan, and Russia begin, and last for 6 rounds. They lead to an agreement in 2005 about the North’s potential denuclearization, re-joining the NPT, and maintaining a civilian nuclear program.

  • How it falls apart: The U.S. also adds in some economic measures, and when North Korea requests these be eased the deal breaks down.

2007-2009: The parties work on crafting steps to implement the prior agreement, including a proposal from the U.S. about site inspection in North Korea.

  • How it falls apart: North Korea opposes that pitch and announces it will restart its processing plant. Pyongyang launches a Taepo Dong-2 three-stage rocket, which the UN calls a violation of one of its resolutions. North Korea announces it will no longer participate in talks.

2010: North Korea suggests talks on implementing a peace treaty in place of the ceasefire that followed the Korean War.

  • How it falls apart: Pyongyang threatens war with South Korea after Seoul says it would invade the North if it threatens a nuclear strike.
  • A South Korea patrol ship sinks and the Joint Civilian-Military Investigation Group (JIG) concludes the North is responsible. The U.S. and South Korea conduct joint military exercises as a show of force in response. The U.S. increases financial sanctions.
  • North Korea announces it has a facility with 2,000 centrifuges to enrich uranium and fires artillery at a South Korean island.

2012: After meeting with the U.S. in 2011 for the first time in 2 years, North Korea announces it will stop uranium enrichment, allow in IAEA inspectors, and hold a moratorium on nuclear and long-range missile tests.

  • How it falls apart: North Korea announces it will launch a satellite, which the U.S. says would violate the agreement. The U.S. suspends food aid delivery to the North. North Korea reveals six ICBMs, although experts say they may be fakes. North Korea launches a long-range rocket.

2018: South Korea says it is willing to talk with the North after Kim Jong-un suggests coordinating for the Olympics. The U.S. and South Korea postpone joint military exercises. Kim and Moon meet face-to-face.

The bottom line

All of the parties involved have expressed hope that this time is different, and it may be. But the history shows that tensions often ramp up just after an apparent breakthrough.

Go deeper

Cedric Richmond: We won't wait on GOP for "insufficient" stimulus

Top Biden adviser Cedric Richmond told "Axios on HBO" the White House believes it has bipartisan support for a stimulus bill outside the Beltway.

  • "If our choice is to wait and go bipartisan with an insufficient package, we are not going to do that."

The big picture: The bill will likely undergo an overhaul in the Senate after House Democrats narrowly passed a stimulus bill this weekend, reports Axios' Kadia Goba.

Updated 9 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Cuomo asks for “independent” investigator into sexual harassment claims

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo at a press conference on Feb. 24. Photo: Seth Wenig/pool/AFP via Getty Images

A top aide to Gov. Andrew Cuomo said that he would authorize and "voluntarily cooperate" with an independent investigation run by New York's attorney general into claims he sexually harassed several women.

The state of play: The statement comes after a day of competing statements from Cuomo and AG Letitcia James over who would oversee an independent investigation into the governor.

Cuomo scandal snares Dems on #MeToo

Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios. Photo: Ray Tamarra/Getty Images   

The searing sexual harassment allegations made against Gov. Andrew Cuomo are trouble for Democrats far beyond Albany and New York.

Why it matters: They hammered Donald Trump after the "Access Hollywood" tape. Pilloried Brett Kavanaugh over Christine Blasey Ford. Defended President Biden when he was accused of inappropriate touching. Now, Democrats have to show whether they walk the "#MeToo" talk.