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Illustration: Annelise Capossela

More than 1,000 towns, lakes, streams, creeks and mountain peaks across the U.S. still bear racist names, according to a federal board under the Department of the Interior.

Why it matters: The legacies of sites with names such as Squaw Lake, Minn., and Dead Negro Spring in Oklahoma endure, even amid a national push to remove Confederate monuments and change designations of public buildings named for racists.

  • A government link already exists where people can suggest name changes. But locals often overlook the nature of such names because they carry a nostalgia about places they and their families have gathered for generations.  
  • Some advocates see the ascent of Interior Secretary Deb Haaland, the first Native American to hold a federal cabinet position, as an opportunity to renew efforts to change these names. Interior spokesman Tyler Cherry declined to say whether any bans or other actions on such names are being considered.

Flashback: Secretary of the Interior Stuart Udall in 1963 ordered the N-word be scrubbed from all federal places on maps.

By the numbers: The database maintained by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names shows there are 799 sites that contain the word "squaw" — a derogatory term for Native American women.

  • It also shows 621 places with the word "negro" in them, including Big Negro Creek in Warren, Ill. — and Negro Foot, Va., an unincorporated community said to have been named in reference to an enslaved person whose foot was amputated to prevent escape.
  • Twenty-nine places contain the word "Chinaman" — an offensive term describing Chinese American men. There's Chinaman Hat in Wasco County, Ore., and Chinamans Canyon in Las Animas County, Colo.
  • There are 82 places with the word "redman" (an offensive term for Native Americans), seven places with the term "darkey" (an offensive term for Black Americans), and 11 places with "redskin."
  • New Mexico is home to a reservoir called Wetback Tank, while there are 12 places around the country with the term "greaser." Both are epithets used to describe Mexican Americans.
  • Five places are named "Anna," which once meant "Ain’t No (N-words) Allowed" to Black travelers since some were sundown towns — places Black people weren't allowed after dark.

Slurs targeting ethnic whites reflect the discrimination Eastern European and Southern European immigrants once faced.

  • The database lists six places with the term "Polack," a derogatory reference to a person of Polish descent, and around two dozen places with the word "dago," a slur aimed at Italian Americans.

The intrigue: While activists and scholars have been seeking changes for years, most names have only changed when local communities agree.

  • Last year, California’s popular Squaw Valley Ski Resort, the site of the 1960 Winter Olympics, changed its name after complaints from Native American tribes.

What they're saying: “The United States has a long history of dehumanizing Native Americans, mocking Native traditions and cultures, and perpetuating negative stereotypes of Native peoples," Crystal Echo Hawk, founder and Executive Director of IllumiNative, told Axios.

  • "Changing racist names is a start, but we also need to transform how Americans see and treat Native people.”

Go deeper

20 Democrats urge mental health support for Indian Boarding School survivors, descendants

Rep. Sharice Davids (left) and Sen. Elizabeth Warren (right) are leading a coalition of Democrats in urging for mental health care for Indian Boarding School survivors. Photos: Bill Clark/CQ-Roll Call, Inc and Tom Williams/CQ-Roll Call, Inc via Getty Images

Twenty Democratic lawmakers are calling on the U.S. Indian Health Service (IHS) to provide "culturally appropriate" mental health care for Native Americans who might experience trauma as the Interior Department investigates the U.S. Indian Boarding School policy's lasting effects.

Why it matters: Under the policy, Native children were forcibly removed from their homes and placed in boarding schools that attempted to strip them of their cultures, practices and identities. Survivors, as well as their descendants, might face a "resurgence of trauma" amid revelations from the probe, lawmakers say.

Updated 2 hours ago - Politics & Policy

New York AG alleges "significant evidence" of Trump Organization fraud

Combination images of former President Trump and New York State Attorney General Letitia James. Photo: Al Drago/Bloomberg via Getty Images; Scott Heins/Getty Images

New York's attorney general filed a motion Tuesday seeking to compel former President Trump and his two elder children to appear for sworn testimony in her office's civil investigation into the Trump Organization's financial dealings.

Why it matters: Attorney General Letitia James revealed new details in the court filing and a statement on her office's investigation into the Trump Organization's business practices, including a preliminary finding alleging the company used "fraudulent and misleading asset valuations to obtain economic benefits."

4 hours ago - Technology

Ex-N.Y. Post digital chief files lawsuit alleging sexual harassment

Richard B. Levine) (Photo by Richard Levine/Corbis via Getty Images

Former New York Post editor Michelle Gotthelf is suing her former employer, its parent company News Corp. and two editors, alleging she was reprimanded after complaining to senior executives that she was sexually harassed by retired N.Y. Post editor-in-chief Col Allan. The N.Y. Post issued a statement denying any wrongdoing.

Why it matters: "I felt that I owed it to myself and I owed it to the news organization and the people who answered to me," Gotthelf, who was a long time editor at the N.Y. Post, told Axios in an interview.