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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

The Federal Election Commission has ruled foreign donors can finance U.S. referendum campaigns, opening the door to foreign spending on fights over high-profile policy issues, Axios has learned.

Why it matters: Foreign nationals are barred from donating to U.S. political candidates or committees. But the FEC's decision — allowing them to support ballot committees — provides another avenue for foreigners to directly influence U.S. voters and domestic policy.

  • A major question stemming from the decision is whether foreign nationals are now permitted to spend money to influence the actual mechanisms of the U.S. democratic process.
  • That would include congressional redistricting, which is frequently subject to ballot referenda.
  • The FEC's ruling did not address that question, meaning it will likely be litigated in future fights at the commission.

The decision only concerns federal law; states remain free to outlaw foreign funding for state-registered ballot committees.

  • Seven states already do so.
  • In Maine, where a Canadian-owned power company is financing a ballot committee pushing for new energy transmission lines, Gov. Janet Mills, a Democrat, recently vetoed legislation to ban foreign ballot measure funding.

Driving the news: In a 4-2 vote in July, the FEC ruled ballot initiatives are not "elections" under existing federal law, and therefore the foreign donation prohibition doesn't apply.

  • Two sources familiar with the decision told Axios that FEC chair Shana Broussard, a Democrat, voted with the panel's three Republicans to dismiss the underlying complaint. It alleged illicit foreign funding for a ballot committee in Montana.

The big picture: There are already 61 referenda on state ballots in 2022, according to electoral research service Ballotpedia. The decision has the potential to affect not just policy initiatives, but the mechanics of U.S. democracy itself.

  • Issues such as congressional redistricting are frequently settled via state referenda. The FEC's decision could put wealthy foreigners in a position to influence that process.
  • The opposing view is the federal ban on foreign donations "in connection with" an election bars funding for such measures — regardless of whether they're litigated via ballot question.
  • That issue wasn't addressed in the FEC's decision this week.

The backstory: The decision stemmed from a 2018 complaint alleging a Canadian subsidiary of Australian firm Sandfire Resources illegally financed a measure to block new restrictions on hard rock mining in Montana.

  • David Brooks, the executive director of Montana Trout Unlimited and one of the complainants in the case, called the FEC ruling "surprising and scary" in an emailed statement to Axios.
  • "Are we, as U.S. citizens, really OK with letting foreign money go directly to state lawmaking via citizen initiative campaigns?"

Sandfire did not respond to a request for comment. The Montana Mining Association, which spearheaded opposition to the 2018 ballot measure, also did not respond to inquiries.

What they're saying: "This FEC decision reflects a big loophole in the federal ban on foreign money in U.S. elections," said Brendan Fischer, the director of federal and FEC reforms at the Campaign Legal Center.

Go deeper

Nov 29, 2021 - Axios Des Moines

Many Iowans didn't return to vote after absentee ballots rejected

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

At least 206 people in Iowa's two largest counties didn't return to vote in this month's elections after their absentee ballot requests were rejected for missing the state's new deadline, according to data Axios obtained via public record requests.

  • That includes at least 95 voters in Polk County and 111 in Linn County.

Why it matters: Auditors from both counties said many of them could've had a ballot mailed and their vote counted if the law hadn't shortened the request window this year.

  • Results in several elections were razor-thin, so it's possible the votes could've made a difference in the final outcomes, Linn County Auditor Joel Miller said.
Updated 58 mins ago - Health

Massage, facial, pedicure... intravenous drip?

A salon on the Upper East Side of New York that offers IV drip therapies. Photo: Jennifer A. Kingson/Axios

IV drips — the kind you might get if you're rushed to the hospital — are trending as a spa treatment, thanks in part to endorsements by celebrities like Kim Kardashian and Madonna.

Why it matters: Like other "wellness" trends with a whiff of medical imprimatur, IV nutrient drips can be harmless or mildly restorative — or go awry, particularly in the wrong hands.

U.S. sounds alarm on Ukraine

Conscripts line up at a Russian railway station yesterday before departing for Army service. Photo: Sergei Malgavko/TASS via Getty Images

The Biden administration is "deeply concerned" by new intelligence — detailed for Axios and other outlets — showing Russia stepping up preparations to invade Ukraine as soon as early 2022.

Why it matters: Most of this was known from public sources and satellite imagery, but the administration is sending a stronger signal by releasing specific details from the intelligence community.

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