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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

Most U.S. cities are at risk of experiencing extreme heat thanks to the "urban heat island effect" that's causing cities to warm as much as 50% faster than the rest of the country.

Why it matters: July was the hottest month ever recorded globally, and it was especially brutal for major metros.

"The extreme heat we’re seeing right now is the result of both climate change and urban development patterns. Cities have to think about the long-term implications of the changing environment."
— Katharine Burgess, vice president of urban resilience at the Urban Land Institute

The big picture: Severe heat wreaks havoc on cities' infrastructure, like electric grids, and presents serious public health risks.

City planners and developers are rethinking urban design to keep buildings and people cool as temperatures rise, according to a new report by the Urban Land Institute first shared with Axios.

  • Extreme heat may be a material risk: Moody's, Fitch Ratings and S&P Global warned that credit ratings could take into account cities' strategies for dealing with climate change. That could significantly impact cities' ability to raise capital and finance projects.
  • Midsized U.S. cities can expect about a 1% GDP loss by 2050 due to increased expenses and reduced growth associated with rising temperatures.

By the numbers: On average, cities are 2°F to 6°F warmer than their surroundings. Because they are covered with sun-absorbing pavement and rooftops, cities can be up to 22 degrees hotter than surrounding areas.

  • Today, cities have on average 10 more extreme heat events per year than they did in the mid-1950s.
  • Heat islands cause about 20% of the formation of urban smog, which then traps even more hot air in a city.

What's happening: From an economic perspective, cities that plan for super-hot futures may have a competitive advantage as consumers' preferences change with the weather.

  • In Houston, a midtown throughway was narrowed to make room for 175 large trees to provide shade cover along the corridor, resulting in a 20-degree temperature reduction in shaded areas.
  • In Scottsdale, a mixed-use development placed clustered buildings at specific angles to provide shade to each other and to pedestrian walkways. A giant custom shade was installed above the central plaza.
  • In New York City, parking lots are being turned into green spaces and "cool roofs" are installed throughout the city.
  • In Toronto, all buildings of a certain size are required by law to install vegetation on rooftops to reduce ambient temperatures. Greening 5% of the city's rooftop areas is estimated to lower citywide temperatures by about 1 degree.
  • In Los Angeles, where 40% of the city is covered with pavement, roofing materials must meet new sun-reflecting standards, and some city roads are coated with light-colored, reflective coating.

The catch: Heat mitigation measures are expensive, especially for large-scale projects. In the near-term, increasing air conditioning will likely be the go-to cooling method, even though they give off heat that may increase local temperatures and, through emissions, worsen climate change.

The most intense daytime urban heat islands are Las Vegas, Albuquerque, Denver, Portland, Louisville, Washington, D.C., Kansas City, Columbus, Minneapolis and Seattle.

Threat level: The impacts of extreme heat are felt disproportionately by a city's most vulnerable populations — the homeless, elderly, young and those living in poverty. Low-income communities are also less likely to have air conditioning or access to pools or cooling centers.

The bottom line: Severe heat will force cities, especially those in already-warm climates, to find long-term cooling strategies to protect their people, infrastructure and economy.

Go deeper

2 hours ago - Health

CDC panel endorses Pfizer vaccine for 12- to 15-year-olds

Illustration: Brendan Lynch/Axios

An advisory panel for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Wednesday endorsed the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus vaccine for 12-to 15-year-olds, following the FDA's emergency use authorization.

Why it matters: Approval from the CDC panel was the final step needed before inoculations could be offered at any vaccination site for this age group.

  • Pfizer has said its vaccine is 100% effective at protecting against COVID-19 in a trial of more than 2,200 children between the ages of 12 and 15.

GOP lawmakers downplay Capitol riot at House hearing

Photo: Jon Cherry via Getty Images

Republican members of Congress sought to minimize the Capitol insurrection at a House hearing on Wednesday, with statements calling pro-Trump rioters "patriots" and other lawmakers falsely denying demonstrators were supporters of the former president at all.

Driving the news: The hearing comes shortly after House Republicans voted to oust Rep. Liz Cheney (R-Wyo.) from leadership over her criticism of former President Trump's actions leading up to and on Jan. 6.

McConnell, McCarthy say 2017 tax law is "red line" in infrastructure talks

The top Republicans in the House and Senate told reporters after meeting with President Biden at the White House that "there is a bipartisan desire to get an outcome" on an infrastructure package, but stressed that revisiting the 2017 tax cuts is a "red line."

Why it matters: Wednesday marked the first time that Biden has hosted Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (R-Ky.) and House Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy (R-Calif.) at the White House.