Every Trump associate who testified before Congress
Illustration: Lazaro Gamio / Axios
As the Special Counsel's Russia probe intensifies — narrowing in on 13 categories and charging individuals like Paul Manafort and Michael Flynn — there are still several ongoing congressional investigations into Trump's associates and Russia's influence in the 2016 election. Steve Bannon testified Tuesday before the House Intelligence Committee, and was subpoenaed last week by Robert Mueller to testify before a grand jury, per the NYT.
Why it matters: Bannon's testimony is highly anticipated after Michael Wolff's "Fire and Fury" was released, in which Bannon was quoted as describing Donald Trump Jr.'s
2016 meeting with a Russian lawyer "treasonous."
Here's every Trump associate who's testified before Congress that Axios is aware of:
- Jeff Sessions, Trump's attorney general, testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee June 13 and before the House Judiciary Committee November 14, where he would not answer questions about Trump's ability to pardon the likes of Manafort and Gates.
- Michael Caputo, a former top Trump campaign adviser with ties to the Kremlin, testified before the House Intelligence Committee July 14 in a closed session for more than three hours, per CNN.
- Jared Kushner, Trump's senior advisor and son-in-law, testified before the Senate and House Intelligence committees in closed sessions late July.
- Paul Manafort, Trump's former campaign chairman, testified before the Senate Intelligence Committee July 25.
- JD Gordon, the Trump campaign's national security adviser in the policy office, met with the Senate and House Intelligence committees in July, according to a source with direct knowledge.
- Donald Trump Jr., Trump's eldest son, gave testimony before Senate investigators from the Senate Intelligence Committee September 7 and returned December 13.
- Roger Stone, a longtime Trump ally who informally advised his campaign, testified before the House Intelligence Committee September 26. The testimony via The Washington Post.
- Boris Epshteyn testified before the House Intelligence Committee September 28, per CNN.
- Michael Cohen, Trump's lawyer, appeared before the House and Senate Intelligence Committees in October, per NBC. The committee canceled the original September 19 meeting since he broke an agreement not to release a public statement before the meeting.
- Keith Schiller, Trump's long-time body guard, testified privately in early November before the House Intelligence Committee, CNN reports.
- Steve Bannon talked to the House Intelligence Committee behind closed doors on January 16, CNN reports.
Rod Rosenstein, Trump's deputy attorney general, testified before the House Judiciary Committee in December, saying he doesn't believe it was improper of FBI or special counsel members taking part in the Russia investigation to have donated to Hillary Clinton or Barack Obama, Axios' Alayna Treene reported. He also told the Committee he doesn't think there's "good cause" for firing Mueller.
- Manafort has agreed to additional interviews with the Senate Intelligence Committee, per the AP. The Senate Judiciary Committee agreed to subpoena documents from Manafort late September, and may use subpoena power to get him to testify, per The Washington Post. He's not been responsive to committee requests, per members on the committee.
- Trump Jr. has agreed to give documents, answer questions, and appear openly for the Senate Judiciary Committee, per Chairman Chuck Grassley.
- Brad Parscale, the digital director for Trump's campaign, agreed in July to testify before the House Intelligence Committee, per CNN.
- President Trump: The top Democrat on the House Intelligence Committee, Eric Swalwell, said the committee may need Trump himself to testify soon. Trump in June said he is "100%" willing to testify under oath about his conversations with his fired FBI Director James Comey.
- Corey Lewandowski: The Senate Judiciary Committee requested documents from Trump's former campaign manager, and Russian Ambassador Sergei Kislyak, per Politico.
- Rob Goldstone, the publicist behind that meeting, said he hasn't heard from Congressional investigators.
Other key players:
- Carter Page, a foreign policy advisor who was a recruitment target of a Russian spy, reportedly announced October 10 he will plead the Fifth Amendment and not cooperate with the Senate Intelligence Committee. Originally he had volunteered to be interviewed by the committee in March but in May said he had heard his testimony, originally scheduled for June, was postponed. The committee later announced it would determine the pace of taking testimony.
- Glenn Simpson, the founder of the firm that helped draft the Trump dossier, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee in a private session August 22. Senator Richard Blumenthal said he wanted the testimony transcript to be made public.
- Bill Browder, who lobbied Congress to pass the Magnitsky Act in 2012, meant to punish Russian officials, testified before the Senate Judiciary Committee July 27.
- Michael Flynn: Trump's fired National Security Advisor, asked for immunity in March to testify before the Senate and House Intelligence Committees (and the FBI). He pled guilty to lying to the FBI in December.
- Natalia Veselnitskaya: The Russian lawyer at the Trump Tower meeting with Trump Jr., Manafort, and Kushner, said she would be willing to testify before Congress.
- Rinat Akhmetshin: The Russian lobbyist who attended the Trump Tower meeting with the Russian lawyer testified before Special Counsel Robert Mueller's Grand Jury August 11.
In addition to these Congressional investigations and the Special Counsel probe…
- Mueller issued a subpoena to the Deutsche Bank "to provide information on certain money and credit transactions" for accounts owned by Trump and his family, Axios' Shane Savitsky reported. The House Financial Services Committee's Democrats was looking into Deutsche Bank and whether Trump has been given loans backed by Russian interests.
- Both the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee and the Department of Defense Inspector General are looking at Flynn's payments with Russia and Turkey. (A federal grand jury in Virginia is also looking into Flynn's business records.)
- The House Oversight and Government Reform Committee also requested Comey's memos, along with the Senate Intelligence and the Senate Judiciary Committees.
Editor's note: This article was originally published on October 1. It has since been updated to add additional testimony.