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Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

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Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

The early Earth and other rocky planets may have formed quickly and gently, not violently through collapse and collision, as previously thought.

Why it matters: The details of Earth's formation are a long-standing mystery tied to how life may have arisen.

  • Specifics about planet formation are also key as scientists look out to other solar systems with worlds that might be habitable.

What's happening: A study published in Science Advances last week suggests that the proto-Earth may have hosted water before the Moon-forming impact occurred.

  • Other studies from NASA's New Horizons team found that Arrokoth — a world 1 billion miles past Pluto — also seems to have formed gently over time instead of quickly through collisions.

The big picture: Scientists think they have a pretty good understanding of how the giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn formed, but these new studies and years of research before them are forcing scientists to re-examine how rocky worlds like Earth, Mars and Mercury grew.

  • The gas giants likely formed by gobbling up pebbles, quickly becoming the dominant forces in their parts of the solar system.
  • Scientists are now trying to suss out the role this kind of growth may have played in the way that Earth and other small inner solar system worlds grew.

The intrigue: If Earth and other rocky worlds did grow through pebble accretion, it might have implications for when our planet was habitable.

  • "In principle, if we didn't have the Moon-forming impact, life could have formed much earlier on the Earth, probably," Martin Schiller, co-author of the Science Advances study, told Axios.

What's next: Scientists creating models of planetary formation are focusing on building our solar system from the ground up to test the various theories around how the inner planets — Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars — formed.

  • Even if these rocky planets grew by pebble accretion, it's possible that dozens of protoplanets and asteroids that grew from that process collided in a violent cascade much in the same way that classical models show.
  • However, it's also possible that pebble accretion would have left the early inner solar system with just five objects — early Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon and Mars — with only one huge collision between the early Moon and Earth in the early solar system.
  • "It's really fun because we're reinvestigating all of the things that we had taken for granted and modeled in the past," planetary scientist Kevin Walsh told Axios.

Go deeper: A fingerprint of Earth from space

Go deeper

Updated 6 mins ago - World

U.S. releases report finding Saudi prince approved Khashoggi operation

Photo: Bandar Algaloud / Saudi Kingdom Council / Handout/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images

The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) has released an unclassified report assessing that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman (MBS) approved the operation to "capture or kill" Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi in 2018.

Driving the news: The White House also announced sanctions on entities implicated in the murder, though not on MBS directly. Officials also announced a new "Khashoggi ban" under which individuals accused of harassing journalists or dissidents outside their borders can be barred from entering the U.S.

About 20% of U.S. adults have received first vaccine dose, White House says

Joe Biden speaks during an event commemorating the 50 million COVID-19 vaccine shots. Photo: Doug Mills-Pool/Getty Images

Nearly 1 in 5 adults and nearly half of Americans 65 and older have received their first dose of the coronavirus vaccine, White House senior adviser Andy Slavitt said on Friday.

The big picture: The Biden administration has previously said it has secured enough doses to vaccinate most of the American population by the end of July.

Updated 46 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Health: Most COVID-19 survivors can weather risk of reinfection, study says — "Twindemic" averted as flu reports plummet amid coronavirus crisis
  2. Vaccine: Employers mull COVID vaccine requirements — New data reignites the debate over coronavirus vaccine strategyPfizer begins study on 3rd vaccine dose as booster shot against new strains.
  3. Economy: What's really going on with the labor market.
  4. Local: All adult Minnesotans will likely be eligible for COVID-19 vaccine by summer — Another wealthy Florida community receives special access to COVID-19 vaccine.
  5. Sports: Poll weighs impact of athlete vaccination.

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