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Expand chart
Adapted from Hincks et al., 2018, “Oklahoma’s induced seismicity strongly linked to wastewater injection depth”; Map: Lazaro Gamio / Axios

Scientists know that wastewater injection related to fracking for oil and gas can induce earthquakes. A new study published in Science Thursday found that the deeper these injections go towards a layer of rock called the crystalline basement, the more likely they are to cause earthquakes.

Why it matters: Oklahoma never used to experience many earthquakes, but since 2009, a number of damaging temblors have shaken the area. "State regulators could cut about in half the number of man-made quakes by restricting deep injections in the ground," study author Thea Hinck told the Associated Press.

What they did: The researchers developed a statistical model to evaluate the relationship between well operations (including the depth and rate of injection and the volume of liquids), the geology surrounding the wells, and earthquakes.

  • They evaluated all the Class II wells (used for oil and gas production) in Oklahoma and studied the seismic activity there.
  • There were 2,264 earthquakes of magnitude 3 or greater recorded in the state for the six-year-period of collected data.

What they found: Restricting injection depths to 200–500 meters above the basement level could reduce earthquakes by a factor of 1.2–2.8.

  • Location matters: "It turns out there are patches of higher and lower potential within the broader zone, and this affects how likely it is any particular well will be implicated in earthquake trigger," study author Thomas Gernon tells Axios.

Another perspective: U.S. Geological Survey's Art McGarr, a geophysicist not part of this study, told Axios most of the study's findings had been shown before. However, he says it's important to continue research.

"In Oklahoma, it is especially important to understand the causes of seismic activity because this source of hazard can be controlled, in contrast to natural seismicity, which is beyond human control," he says.

Editor's note: The headline was corrected to reflect the wells in the study were wastewater injection wells and not fracking wells.

Go deeper

Right wing builds its own echo chamber

Expand chart
Data: Apptopia; Table: Axios Visuals

Conservatives are aggressively building their own apps, phones, cryptocurrencies and publishing houses in an attempt to circumvent what they see as an increasingly liberal internet and media ecosystem.

Why it matters: Many of these efforts couldn't exist without the backing of major corporate figures and billionaires who are eager to push back against things like "censorship" and "cancel culture."

Updated 3 hours ago - World

Myanmar's deposed leader Aung San Suu Kyi sentenced to 4 years in prison

An anti-coup protest in Yangon, Myanmar.Photo: Hkun Lat/Getty Images

A Myanmar court sentenced the country's ousted leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, on Monday to four years in prison on charges of "inciting public unrest" and breaking COVID-19 protocols, per the New York Times.

Why it matters: It's the first of several verdicts that could result in the 76-year-old Nobel laureate being imprisoned for the rest of her life. The 11 charges she faces have been widely criticised as politically motivated.

6 hours ago - World

Pope Francis denounces European governments' migrant response

Pope Francis adresses refugees at the Reception and Identification Centre (RIC) in Mytilene on the island of Lesbos on Sunday. Photo: Louisa Gouliamaki/Pool/AFP via Getty Images

Pope Francis criticized European countries' response to migrants and asylum seekers during his visit to a refugee camp on the Greek island of Lesbos Sunday.

Why it matters: The pope said "migration is a humanitarian crisis that concerns everyone," but little had changed in the global response to displaced peoples since his first visit to Lesbos five years ago, per a transcript of his remarks. "Human lives, real people, are at stake. ... let us stop this shipwreck of civilization!"