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Even in Denmark — where social policies give parents a generous 52 weeks of fully paid family leave — women who have children take a big pay cut in the long run, per a new study by Danish economists.

The bottom line: About a year after the birth of her first child, a woman earns more than 35% less than a woman without kids. Men with and without kids earn almost exactly the same.

Expand chart
Adapted from Kleven et al., 2018, “Children and Gender Inequality: Evidence from Denmark”; Chart: Axios Visuals

Key takeaways:

  • Ten years after the birth of their first children, women make only about 6% more than they were making before having kids. Men make 15% more.
  • Women without kids see a nearly 30% wage increase over 10 years, compared to mothers.
  • The gap widens between fathers and mothers as they have more children. After 10 years...
    • One-child mothers make about 10% less, two-child mothers 20% less, three-child mothers 30% less, and four-child mothers 40% less.
  • Twenty years after the birth of their first child, women with kids work about half an hour less per day than their counterparts without kids, but they make about 20% less.

The big picture: Denmark has some of the most accommodating social policies in the world for parents, but a stark wage gap between mothers and other women and men in the workforce persists.

The story in the U.S., which has no guaranteed paid family leave, is similar according to the Upshot. "According to the data.. college-educated women make about 90 percent as much as men at age 25 and about 55 percent as much at age 45," primarily due to motherhood.

Go deeper

Mike Allen, author of AM
2 hours ago - Politics & Policy

First look: Anita Dunn advises Dems on economy message for '22

Signs from a President Biden event yesterday in Kansas City, Mo. Photo: Chase Castor/Bloomberg via Getty Images

In a midterm preview, top Democratic strategist Anita Dunn advises the party's House and Senate members to frame Republicans "as being against the economic interests of working Americans."

What she's saying: "Explicitly framing Republicans as opposing policies to lower costs does better than simply framing Republicans as the 'party of no,'" Dunn, White House senior adviser until August, writes in the memo.

JPMorgan: "Full global recovery" in 2022

Photo: Erik McGregor/LightRocket via Getty Images

JPMorgan Chase Global Research says in a forecast to clients: "2022 will be the year of a full global recovery, an end of the global pandemic, and a return to normal conditions we had prior to the COVID-19 outbreak."

The big picture: The bullish report sees "a return of global mobility, and a release of pent-up demand from consumers (e.g. travel, services)."

Inside Trump's hunt for "disloyal" Republicans

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Donald Trump and his associates are systematically reshaping the Republican Party, working to install hand-picked loyalists across federal and state governments and destroy those he feels have been disloyal, sources close to the former president tell Axios.

Why it matters: If most or all of Trump’s candidates win, he will go into the 2024 election cycle with far more people willing to do his bidding who run the elections in key states.