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French President Emmanuel Macron seen after the opening session of the Paris Peace Forum. Photo: Artur Widak/NurPhoto via Getty Images

French President Emmanuel Macron released an international agreement on cybersecurity principles Monday as part of the Paris Peace Forum. The original signatories included more than 50 nations, 130 private sector groups and 90 charitable groups and universities, but not the United States, Russia or China.

The big picture: The Paris Call for Trust and Security in Cyberspace is another step in the disjointed effort to create international norms and laws for cybersecurity and warfare. In most international matters of regulating the internet, there tends to be a wide split between the liberal Western order and authoritarian nations like Russia and China.

Details: The agreement does not command any specific legislation.

  • The principles include agreements to promote human rights on the internet, thwart election hacking, cease the theft of intellectual property via hacking and stop "malicious cyber activities in peacetime, notably the ones threatening or resulting in significant, indiscriminate or systemic harm to individuals." China, Russia and North Korea have each been accused of violating some or all of these in the past.
  • Private sector groups are tasked with having a unique responsibility in security.
  • It includes an endorsement of certain security measures, including basic security practices and responsible disclosure campaigns, allowing security researchers to alert organizations and governments to security vulnerabilities in their systems.

Key absentees from the agreement included the U.S. and Australia — two of the five nations in the powerful Five Eyes digital surveillance alliance. The others — the U.K., Canada and New Zealand — all signed.

  • Many restrictive regimes also did not sign on, including China, North Korea, Russia and Iran, who all have active cyber warfare programs, and Saudi Arabia, which does not.
  • Israel, which has a large domestic cybersecurity industry, also did not sign on.

But the signatories include two notable tech sector security agreements: the Microsoft-led Cybersecurity Tech Accord and the Siemens-led Charter of Trust.

  • Major tech firms like Microsoft, Facebook, Google, IBM and HP are all signed on — either through those private sector pacts or to the agreement outright.
  • Kaspersky Lab, which has been accused of assisting in Russia's hacking efforts, signed as well. Chinese firms accused of benefitting from the theft of intellectual property or assisting in espionage, including ZTE and Huawei, did not.

Correction: As originally posted, this article stated incorrectly that the United Kingdom did not sign the agreement. It has.

Go deeper

Texas abortion law remains in effect after appeals court ruling

Pro- and anti-abortion protesters outside the Supreme Court as arguments begin about the Texas abortion law on Capitol Hill in November. Photo: Jabin Botsford/The Washington Post via Getty Images

A U.S. appeals court transferred a challenge to Texas' law banning most abortions after about six weeks of pregnancy to the state supreme court in a 2-1 vote on Monday evening.

Why it matters: The 5th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals' decision means the country's most restrictive abortion law can remain in place for the time being.

2 hours ago - World

At least 2 dead after Tonga volcano eruption and tsunami

A satellite image of the explosive eruption of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano on Saturday. Photo: UNICEF/NOAA

At least two people are confirmed to have died in Tonga following the undersea volcanic eruption that sent tsunami waves toward the island nation and across the Pacific over the weekend, officials said Monday.

The big picture: Officials reported major damage along the western coast of the main island of Tongatapu, where the capital, Nuku'alofa, was covered in ash and dust, including on the runway of the airport. A New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs spokesperson told Axios over the phone that two people had been confirmed to have died in the disaster.

Airlines call for Biden admin's "immediate intervention" in 5G deployment

Photo: Tayfun Coskun/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images

The CEOs of leading U.S. air cargo and passenger carriers on Monday warned the Biden administration there could be "catastrophic disruption" after AT&T and Verizon deploy a new 5G service this week.

Driving the news: They said in a letter to Transportation Secretary Pete Buttigieg and other top federal officials ahead of the C-Band 5G service's deployment Wednesday that "the nation's commerce will grind to a halt" and "could potentially strand tens of thousands of Americans overseas."