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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

Americans' plans to socialize outside in colder weather — when COVID-19 will still be a threat to indoor gatherings — are prompting an expensive and environmentally questionable rush on outdoor heaters.

Why it matters: Heating outdoor patios is a big new cost for businesses, and the energy sources are almost always fossil fuels that contribute to climate change.

Where it stands: Nearly 50% of full-service restaurants say they’re taking actions to extend outdoor dining seasons, including patio heaters, according to a survey by the National Restaurant Association. Other businesses, like ski lodges, are also buying more outdoor heaters.

  • Jeremy Sasson, president of Michigan-based Heirloom Hospitality, which runs three restaurants in the Detroit area, said he has increased the numbers of heaters he uses from eight or 10 in previous years to 25 this year.
  • The cost of fuel for heating — which is just one of numerous wholly new categories of costs for restaurants in the pandemic — is about the same as some of his rents, Sasson said, coming in at around $200 a day.
  • “I’m willing to spend the money to stay open,” said Sasson, who employs between 200 and 250 people. “It stabilizes the jobs within the restaurants.”

How it works: Propane, a liquid gas that comes from crude oil and natural gas, is typically the most popular type of energy source because it is freestanding and can be moved around. Electric heaters are another option, but they are not mobile.

  • Among fossil-fuel products, propane is the second cleanest behind natural gas, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA).
  • Electric heaters may appear cleaner, but considering almost two-thirds of America’s electricity comes from natural gas and coal, they’re not cleaner and can actually be less efficient, according to experts.
  • In any case, additional carbon emissions come with the use of outdoor heaters of any type unless renewable energy is powering an electric heater.

By the numbers: It's hard to pin down either the total number of heaters being used or the amount of energy being used given the lack of publicly available data. Some experts have nonetheless tried to crunch the numbers.

  • Paul Sankey, an independent oil analyst, estimated that restaurants in New York City using outdoor heaters may consume about 1,600 barrels of propane a day.
  • That’s compared to the approximately 100,000 barrels of propane typically used for commercial uses throughout the entire U.S., per EIA data. Although this is a drop in the bucket, it's for just one (large) city.
  • From an emissions perspective, the overall impact is likely small, but it’s still a whole new category of emissions being created when scientists are saying the world needs to cut emissions.
  • Looking just at the fall season and estimating that maybe half of America’s roughly 1 million restaurants might use outdoor heaters, one environmentalist crunched numbers on behalf of Axios.
  • This person, who doesn’t want to be named given the unofficial nature of the analysis, concluded such heaters could create 1.5 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year, which is 0.02% of today’s emissions.

The intrigue: New York City, which has one of the most aggressive climate-change plans of any city, is allowing more use of outdoor heaters, including propane, in the wake of the pandemic.

  • “That doesn’t change our commitment to fighting climate change in New York City,” Mitch Schwartz, a spokesperson for Mayor Bill de Blasio, said in an email to Axios. “It only means we’re in unusual times, and we’re going to do what it takes to support the restaurants that make our city great.”
  • The move has prompted some local media to criticize the city and compare it to other leaders on climate change, namely France, which is banning outdoor heaters (however, only after this winter).

What we're watching: The booming propane business. Paraco, a New York-based propane company, usually sells 100,000 fuel tanks per month this time of year to New York City and surrounding areas. Now, it’s up to a monthly 250,000 tanks.

  • Its sales in this category are up 200%, and one big-box store told the company its patio heater sales are up 1,500%.
  • Sankey describes it as “the seemingly all-but COVID-proof propane market.”
  • Shortages are not expected — for now, per Paraco officials and other propane experts.

Editor’s note: This story has been corrected to say that two-thirds of U.S. electricity is generated by natural gas and coal (not natural gas and oil).

Go deeper

How to judge America’s climate-change responsibility

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Historically, America has emitted the most greenhouse gases of any country in the world. But over the next 80 years, the U.S. may account for as little as 5% of such emissions.

Why it matters: Installing technologies to address climate change will, therefore, be most critical in places other than America where emissions’ growth is expected to be higher, according to physicist Varun Sivaram.

Updated 5 hours ago - Politics & Policy

British national named in Colleyville synagogue standoff

A law enforcement vehicle sits near the Congregation Beth Israel synagogue on Jan. 16. Photo: Brandon Bell/Getty Images

British national Malik Faisal Akram took four people hostage at a Texas synagogue outside Fort Worth on Saturday, the FBI said in a statement.

State of play: Authorities had initially declined to release the name of the 44-year-old suspect or identify the hostages, all adults, though police chief Michael Miller confirmed that one of those held was Rabbi Charlie Cytron-Walker, who leads the congregation.

Updated 5 hours ago - Politics & Policy

Omicron dashboard

Illustration: Brendan Lynch/Axios

  1. Health: Concerns grow over CDC's isolation guidelines — Experts warn of more COVID-19 variants after Omicron — WHO recommends 2 new treatments — What "mild" really means when it comes to Omicron — Deaths are climbing as cases skyrocket.
  2. Vaccines: America's vaccination drive runs out of gas— Puerto Rico expands booster shot requirements— Supreme Court blocks Biden's vaccine mandate for large employers.
  3. Politics: Vivek Murthy calls SCOTUS vaccine mandate block "a setback for public health" — Focus group says Biden weak on COVID response, strong on democracy
  4. Economy: America's labor shortage is bigger than the pandemic— — CDC COVID guidance for cruise ships to be optional starting Saturday — The cost of testing.
  5. States: West Virginia governor feeling "extremely unwell" after positive test — Youngkin ends mandates for masks in schools and COVID vaccinations for state workers — America struggles to keep schools open
  6. World: Beijing reports first local Omicron case weeks before Winter Olympics — Teachers in France stage mass walkout over COVID protocols.
  7. Variant tracker

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