Expand chart
Data: The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program; Chart: Lazaro Gamio/Axios

At least 404 terrestrial volcanoes have erupted since 1883 — the year of Krakatoa's historic eruption. Nearly 200 of these eruptions have occurred since the year 2000. These eruptions have varied in size and effects. Some are downright cataclysmic, like the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, while other eruptions are much smaller, frequent and localized. Kilauea, the shield volcano now causing destructive lava flows in Hawaii, has erupted 95 times since 1883.

How to read this chart: Each volcano with a confirmed eruption during or after 1883 is represented on the chart by a shape. The size of the shape and its order on the chart correspond to the volcano's elevation above sea level. The color corresponds to how many eruptions have been observed since 1883 — cooler colors mean fewer eruptions, while the hotter colors indicate more frequent eruptions.

The shape itself corresponds to the type of volcano:

  • Stratovolcanoes: These volcanoes, which are also known as composite volcanoes, have a steep profile. They tend to have frequent explosive eruptions featuring a mix of lava and pyroclastic material. This is the most common type of volcano on Earth, with roughly 60 percent falling into this category.
  • Shield volcanoes: These volcanos are the largest on Earth and tend to have a sloping profile with eruptions that consist almost entirely of lava. Hawaii's Mauna Loa and Kilauea are both shield volcanoes.
  • Calderas: These are formed when a volcano erupts with such force that it causes the summit to collapse into the partially empty magma chamber below. Krakatoa is an example of a caldera volcano.
  • Other: This category covers just about everything else, from pyroclastic cones to lava domes and other varieties.

Go deeper

Updated 2 hours ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Global: Total confirmed cases as of 7 p.m. ET: 19,734,428— Total deaths: 728,612 — Total recoveries — 12,001,537Map.
  2. U.S.: Total confirmed cases as of 7 p.m. ET: 5,036,387 — Total deaths: 162,851 — Total recoveries: 1,656,864 — Total tests: 61,792,571Map.
  3. Politics: Pelosi says states don't have the funds to comply with Trump's executive order on unemployment — Mnuchin says Trump executive orders were cleared by Justice Department.
  4. Public health: Ex-FDA head: U.S. will "definitely" see 200,000 to 300,000 virus deaths by end of 2020 — Fauci says chances are "not great" that COVID-19 vaccine will be 98% effective.
  5. Schools: Nine test positive at Georgia school where photo showing packed hallway went viral — How back-to-school is playing out in the South as coronavirus rages on.
2 hours ago - World

Protests erupt in Belarus after "Europe's last dictator" claims election victory

A man lies on the ground in front of riot police in Minsk. Photo: Sergei Gapon/AFP via Getty Images

Demonstrations broke out across Belarus on Sunday after a government exit poll predicted that President Aleksander Lukashenko, an authoritarian who has ruled the Eastern European country since 1994, had swept to overwhelming victory over a pro-democracy opposition candidate.

Why it matters: It's a precarious moment for the former Soviet republic, where decades of repression and a complete disregard for the coronavirus pandemic now threaten to topple "Europe's last dictator."

Scoop: Inside Trump's debate prep

Trump and Christie. Photo: Jim Watson/AFP via Getty Images

Two weekends ago, President Trump met with a group of his closest aides in the conference room of his Bedminster golf club to discuss a subject that has been weighing heavily on his mind: the three scheduled debates with Joe Biden.

Behind the scenes: In the room with Trump were his son-in-law Jared Kushner, campaign manager Bill Stepien, senior adviser Jason Miller, and former New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie, who role-played Hillary Clinton in Trump's 2016 debate prep sessions.