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Expand chart
Data: The Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program; Chart: Lazaro Gamio/Axios

At least 404 terrestrial volcanoes have erupted since 1883 — the year of Krakatoa's historic eruption. Nearly 200 of these eruptions have occurred since the year 2000. These eruptions have varied in size and effects. Some are downright cataclysmic, like the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington, while other eruptions are much smaller, frequent and localized. Kilauea, the shield volcano now causing destructive lava flows in Hawaii, has erupted 95 times since 1883.

How to read this chart: Each volcano with a confirmed eruption during or after 1883 is represented on the chart by a shape. The size of the shape and its order on the chart correspond to the volcano's elevation above sea level. The color corresponds to how many eruptions have been observed since 1883 — cooler colors mean fewer eruptions, while the hotter colors indicate more frequent eruptions.

The shape itself corresponds to the type of volcano:

  • Stratovolcanoes: These volcanoes, which are also known as composite volcanoes, have a steep profile. They tend to have frequent explosive eruptions featuring a mix of lava and pyroclastic material. This is the most common type of volcano on Earth, with roughly 60 percent falling into this category.
  • Shield volcanoes: These volcanos are the largest on Earth and tend to have a sloping profile with eruptions that consist almost entirely of lava. Hawaii's Mauna Loa and Kilauea are both shield volcanoes.
  • Calderas: These are formed when a volcano erupts with such force that it causes the summit to collapse into the partially empty magma chamber below. Krakatoa is an example of a caldera volcano.
  • Other: This category covers just about everything else, from pyroclastic cones to lava domes and other varieties.

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Illustration: Annelise Capossela/Axios

  1. Health: Coronavirus cases hold steady at 65,000 per day — CDC declares racism "a serious public health threat" — WHO official: Brazil is dealing with "raging inferno" of a COVID outbreak.
  2. Vaccines: America may be close to hitting a vaccine wall — Pfizer asks FDA to expand COVID vaccine authorization to adolescents — CDC says Johnson & Johnson vaccine supply will drop 80% next week.
  3. Economy: Treasury says over 156 million stimulus payments sent out since March — More government spending expected as IMF projects 6% global GDP growth.
  4. Politics: Supreme Court ends California's coronavirus restrictions on home religious meetings.
  5. World: Iran tightens COVID restrictions amid fourth wave of pandemic.
  6. Variant tracker: Where different strains are spreading.
Miriam Kramer, author of Space
Updated 2 hours ago - Science

NASA's delays Mars helicopter test flight

Ingenuity (left) with Perseverance on Mars. Photo: NASA/JPL-Caltech/MSSS

NASA announced Saturday it rescheduled its Ingenuity Mars helicopter's first experimental flight, originally planned for Sunday.

The latest: "During a high-speed spin test of the rotors on Friday, the command sequence controlling the test ended early due to a 'watchdog' timer expiration," NASA said in a statement. "This occurred as it was trying to transition the flight computer from ‘Pre-Flight’ to ‘Flight’ mode."

2 hours ago - Politics & Policy

Scoop: Ohio Senate candidate Josh Mandel escorted out of RNC retreat

Ohio Republican Senate candidate Josh Mandel. Photo: Chris Maddaloni / Getty Images

During this weekend’s highly anticipated donor retreat hosted by the Republican National Committee in Palm Beach, Ohio Senate candidate Josh Mandel was escorted off the premises while his primary opponent, Jane Timken, was allowed to stay, two sources with direct knowledge of the situation tell Axios.

What we’re hearing: The invitation-only event is taking place at the Four Seasons Resort, and the RNC reserved the entire hotel. While Timken, former Ohio GOP chair, was invited to the event “because she is a major donor” — Mandel was not, so he was asked to leave, according to one of the sources.