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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

Startups are competing to use biosynthesis to produce the cannabinoids found in different strains of cannabis.

Why it matters: The market for various types of CBD — a non-psychoactive component in cannabis — for medical and nutraceutical purposes is growing rapidly, and biosynthesis promises a cheaper and more controllable method of production than growing plants.

By the numbers: According to a recent research note from Raymond James, the present size of the global cannabinoid biosynthesis market opportunity is around $40 billion.

  • A number of startups are moving into the biosynthesized cannabinoid space, which Raymond James analyst Rahul Sarugaser has written is "synthetic biology's next killer app."

Background: The conventional method of obtaining cannabinoids like CBD involves cultivating cannabis plants that contain the strain wanted, and then extracting the desired chemicals.

  • Because some of the most in-demand cannabinoids occur in very low concentrations in nature, a lot of plant matter is needed, which means production costs can be higher than $50,000/kg.
  • Growing cannabis can be "backbreaking work," notes Dennis O'Neill, the chief investment officer of the biosynthesis startup Biomedican, and regulatory issues mean that whole cannabis crops need to be destroyed if levels of THC — the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana — are too high.

How it works: In biosynthesis, microbes like yeast and bacteria are engineered to produce large quantities of a single cannabinoid in a fermentation process that works similarly to beer brewing.

  • As a result, biosynthesis companies will be able to produce expensive cannabinoids at a much lower price and without fears of contamination.
  • "We can harvest every day, as opposed to a plant that requires 55 days to grow," says O'Neill.

Flashback: A number of the companies involved in biosynthesis got their start years ago trying to use a similar process to produce advanced biofuels.

  • Those efforts never really bore fruit, in large part because it was far too difficult to compete on price with cheap oil.
  • That looks to be less of a problem with expensive cannabinoids.

What to watch: Whether biosynthesis companies are able to successfully move from demo-scale efforts, like the one announced last week by Berkeley-based Demetrix, to full-scale production.

Go deeper

Dan Primack, author of Pro Rata
Nov 5, 2020 - Economy & Business

Cannabis company makes first-ever purchase of a beer brewer

Photo illustration: Rafael Henrique/SOPA Images/LightRocket via Getty

Aphria (TSX: APHA), a Canadian cannabis company, has agreed to buy Atlanta-based craft brewer SweetWater Brewing Co. for $300 million. Sellers include TSG Consumer Partners.

Why it's the BFD: This is the first time a marijuana company has bought a brewer, rather than the other way around. It also comes the same week that five more states legalized cannabis in some form, meaning that legalization will now cover around one-third of the U.S. adult population.

3 hours ago - Technology

3D printing's next act: big metal objects

Chief Scientist Andy Bayramian makes modifications to the laser system on Seurat's 3D metal printer. Photo courtesy of Seurat Technologies.

A new metal 3D printing technology could revolutionize the way large industrial products like planes and cars are made, reducing the cost and carbon footprint of mass manufacturing.

Why it matters: 3D printing — also called additive manufacturing — has been used since the 1980s to make small plastic parts and prototypes. Metal printing is newer, and the challenge has been figuring out how to make things like large car parts faster and cheaper than traditional methods.

Rising rates may hammer the stock market

Illustration: Sarah Grillo / Axios

Stocks are much more vulnerable to interest rate swings than they used to be.

Why it matters: A sharp rise in rates in early 2022 is the key reason the stock market is off to an ugly start. And with the Federal Reserve making noise about trying to keep inflation in check, rates could go higher.