Nuro's R2 has no occupants, mirrors or windshield. Photo: Courtesy of Nuro

Regulators are starting to rewrite rules for self-driving cars to share the road with traditional vehicles.

The big picture: Automated test vehicles are allowed on public roads in some states — so long as they comply with existing safety standards written for human-driven vehicles.

  • As the technology advances, specially designed AVs without human controls are taking their place, requiring modern rules for the driverless era.

Driving the news: The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration this week gave Nuro, a Silicon Valley startup, permission to bypass some existing safety standards in order to deploy its automated grocery delivery vehicles with no one aboard.

Why it matters: By granting Nuro the industry's first exemption for an AV, NHTSA determined the company's little delivery vans are as safe as other small, low-speed vehicles and that deploying them is in the public interest because it will help the agency shape future AV policy.

  • NHTSA will keep a tight leash by limiting Nuro to 5,000 vehicles over two years and requiring the company to share real-time safety data.
  • The regulatory milestone could pave the way for the deployment of other dedicated AVs.
  • Cruise, General Motors' self-driving unit, is in discussions with NHTSA about an exemption for its new driverless ride-sharing vehicle, Origin.

Exemptions are a temporary fix that could provide a path for AVs to be deployed until safety regulations are enacted.

  • NHTSA has begun the rule-making process for AVs, but that often takes many years.
  • Other countries are moving faster on AV regulation, according to a report this week from global advisory firm Dentons.

Meanwhile: There's action on other fronts. After three years of stalled progress, self-driving vehicle legislation could be picking up momentum in Congress.

  • A House Energy and Commerce subcommittee on Tuesday will hear testimony about sections of a draft bill that would establish a federal framework for self-driving vehicles.
  • This time, lawmakers from both parties, in the House and Senate are crafting the legislation together to give the bill a better chance of passing.
  • The bipartisan, bicameral approach is unusual, and Tuesday's hearing is a sign the legislation might be back on track, says Jamie Boone of the Consumer Technology Association.

Yes, but: The bill could run into many of the same sticking points that killed previous efforts, such as legal liability and the split between federal and state authority.

  • One muddy issue, for example: Today the federal government has authority over vehicle safety whereas states oversee traffic laws, driver's licenses and vehicle registration.
  • The big question: What happens when the driver is a robot?

Some industry groups are stepping in to try to fill the regulatory gap with measurable standards all AV companies can follow.

  • A wave of new AV safety standardization efforts are being rolled out this year by groups such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Underwriters Laboratories and SAE International.
  • The risk is conflicting standards that could lead to confusion.

Go deeper: Waymo pilot with UPS hints at future autonomous truck plan

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Schumer: "Nothing is off the table" if GOP moves to fill Ginsburg's seat

Sen. Chuck Schumer. Photo: Tasos Katopodis/Getty Images

Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer told congressional Democrats on a conference call Saturday that "nothing is off the table next year" if Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and his Republican allies move to fill Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's Supreme Court seat in the coming weeks.

Why it matters: Schumer's comments come amid calls from fellow Democrats to expand the number of judges on the Supreme Court if President Trump and Senate Republicans move to fill the newly empty seat next time the party holds a majority in the Senate.

ActBlue collects record-breaking $30 million in hours after Ginsburg's death

A makeshift memorial in honor of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg in front of the U.S. Supreme Court on Sept. 19. Photo: Samuel Corum/Getty Images

ActBlue, the Democratic donation-processing site, reported a record-breaking $30 million raised from 9 pm Friday to 9 am Saturday in the aftermath of Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's death, NPR writes and ActBlue confirmed to Axios.

Why it matters via the New York Times: "The unprecedented outpouring shows the power of a looming Supreme Court confirmation fight to motivate Democratic donors."