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Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

After having practically eradicated measles from the U.S. almost two decades ago, a growing anti-vaccination movement has led to a resurgence of cases, currently focused in the Pacific Northwest and New York.

Why it matters: Unless doctors and the public step up to counteract the vocal opposition to vaccines with evidence-based facts, there is a serious concern that infectious diseases like measles could return full-force, public health officials and scientists tell Axios.

Driving the news: Washington state Gov. Jay Inslee declared a state of emergency Jan. 25 after multi-county cases caused a "public disaster." There were 36 cases reported on Monday.

  • The nearby city of Portland in Oregon is also concerned, as there have been dozens of possible exposure locations, ranging from a Portland Trail Blazers game to a children's museum.
  • In 2018, there were 349 cases reported in 26 states and D.C., including outbreaks in New York and New Jersey where many were unvaccinated people in Orthodox Jewish communities.
  • Several of these outbreaks (defined as 3 or more cases) are continuing into 2019, including in NYC and Rockland County, N.Y.

Public health officials are concerned the pro-vaccination message isn't getting through, they tell Axios.

"When we see outbreaks of measles like this one, it’s a reminder to parents that many diseases rarely seen in the United States can affect their unvaccinated children.  In some cases, children with measles may go on to develop serious complications, like pneumonia.”
— Nancy Messionnier, director, CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
"There's incorrect information about the safety of the MMR vaccine, and its association with autism, which is 100% false. ... This is one of the most highly contagious diseases out there, but it's balanced against one of the most effective vaccines out there, [which is] 97% effective."
— Anthony Fauci, director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

Between the lines: Some of the main factors behind the anti-vaxxer movement are disbelief that measles is such a bad disease, anti-government sentiment, a misguided sense that the vaccine can be harmful, and lack of accessibility.

1. Disbelief in its seriousness.

  • "This is a very dangerous situation, and I don't think people fully appreciate how difficult and dangerous it is," Fauci says.
  • Pre-vaccine, measles was the cause of deafness, encephalitis or death for some children. People have forgotten how they "were clamoring" for a vaccine, he adds.

2. Anti-government and fear.

  • "Anti-vaccinism often goes hand in hand with suspicion of experts, government and Big Pharma and with conspiracy theories and scepticism about science generally," Helen Bedford, children's health professor at the University College London, tells Axios.
  • Part of this is due to fear the vaccine causes autism, which spiked when a small 1998 study linked the measles vaccine and autism (a study later found fraudulent and retracted), Fauci says.
  • For instance, Ukraine's current large outbreak (already 8,500 in 2019) is mainly due to unsubstantiated fears over safety, Bedford says.

3. Social media optimization.

  • "[Anti-vaxxers'] voice is loud and they have powerful influencers such as celebrities who attract media coverage. Messages can also spread in seconds around the world via social media (perhaps even faster than measles can spread!)," Bedford says.

4. Accessibility issues.

  • "Overall, it is factors such as difficulties accessing services that play an important role in under-immunisation, as a result of large families, poverty, [and] social disadvantage," Bedford adds.

What's next: Fauci says evidence-based science must be consistently promoted by clinicians and public health officials. Bedford agrees, "Science has demonstrated repeatedly that vaccines are highly effective and very safe. We don’t say this loudly or frequently enough!"

Go deeper:

Go deeper

Ben Geman, author of Generate
5 hours ago - Energy & Environment

Key clean power provision likely won't survive in Dems' spending bill

A construction worker walks along a dirt road at the Avangrid Renewables La Joya wind farm in Encino, New Mexico, on Aug. 5, 2020. Photo: Cate Dingley/Bloomberg via Getty Images

A pillar of Democrats' plans to speed deployment of zero-carbon electricity is likely to be cut from major spending and tax legislation they are struggling to move on a party-line vote, per multiple reports and a Capitol Hill aide.

Driving the news: The New York Times, citing anonymous congressional aides and lobbyists, reports that West Virginia Sen. Joe Manchin (D) has told the White House he "strongly opposes" the Clean Electricity Performance Program.

Updated 7 hours ago - World

Fatal stabbing of British MP David Amess declared a terrorist incident

Police outside Belfairs Methodist Church in Leigh-on-Sea, England, on Oct. 15. Photo: John Keeble/Getty Images

Authorities have declared the death of David Amess a terrorist incident, hours after the Conservative Party lawmaker in the U.K. was fatally stabbed while meeting with local constituents in a church in eastern England on Friday.

The big picture: The Metropolitan Police has found "a potential motivation linked to Islamist extremism."

Biden: DOJ should prosecute those who defy Jan. 6 subpoenas

President Biden speaks with reporters at Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Photo: Brendan Smialowski/AFP via Getty Images

President Biden said Friday that the Justice Department should prosecute those who defy subpoenas from the Jan. 6 select committee.

Why it matters: The president's remarks come one day after Donald Trump ally Steve Bannon failed to show up for a deposition before the committee.