Photo: Charlie Riedel / AP

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Jaxa) discovered a chasm beneath the surface of the moon, measuring 50 km long and 100 meters wide, according to The Guardian.

Why it matters: Jaxa identified the cave as a lava tube created by volcanic activity over three billion years ago. A senior Jaxa researcher, Junichi Haruyama, said lava tubes could be "the best candidate sites for future lunar bases."

People and equipment are at risk from extreme temperatures on the moon, varying from 107 degrees Celsius during the day and -153 degrees Celsius at night. The lava tubes could protect astronauts from those extremes, as well as from sun's radiation. But, the inside of the chamber hasn't been seen yet, and Haruyama said further examination would provide more details. It could also offer "insights concerning the evolutionary history of the moon."

The cave's discovery "will boost plans by several countries to send astronauts to the moon almost half a century after the Apollo 11 mission," the Guardian reports. While the U.S. is the only country to have put humans on the moon, Japan has made it a goal for 2030, the same year that Russia expects to begin work on a human colony on the moon's surface.

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What they're saying: Ruth Bader Ginsburg was a "tireless and resolute champion of justice"

Ruth Bader Ginsburg speaking in February. Photo: Sarah Silbiger/Getty Images

Democratic and Republican lawmakers along with other leading figures paid tribute to Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, who died on Friday night at age 87.

What they're saying: “Our Nation has lost a jurist of historic stature," Chief Justice John Roberts said. "We at the Supreme Court have lost a cherished colleague. Today we mourn, but with confidence that future generations will remember Ruth Bader Ginsburg as we knew her — a tireless and resolute champion of justice.”

Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg dies at 87

Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Photo: Tom Brenner/Getty Images

Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg has died of metastatic pancreatic cancer at age 87, the Supreme Court announced Friday evening.

Why it matters: Ginsburg had suffered from serious health issues over the past few years. Her death sets up a fight over filling a Supreme Court seat with less than 50 days until the election.

NYT: White House drug price negotiations broke down over $100 "Trump Cards"

President Trump with Mark Meadows, his chief of staff, on Sept. 3 at Andrews Air Force Base in Maryland. Photo: Mandel Ngan/AFP via Getty Images

Negotiations on a deal between the White House and pharmaceutical industry to lower drug prices broke down last month after Mark Meadows, the president's chief of staff, insisted that drugmakers pay for $100 cash cards to be mailed to seniors before the election, according to the New York Times.

Why it matters: Some of the drug companies feared that in agreeing to the prescription cards — reportedly dubbed "Trump Cards" by some in the pharmaceutical industry — they would boost Trump's political standing weeks ahead of Election Day with voters over 65, a group that is crucial to the president's reelection bid, per the Times.