A glass slide being coated with indium tin oxide for use in a nanoparticle solar cell. Photo: Chris So/Toronto Star via Getty Images

The Commerce Department released on Tuesday an interagency report that identifies a list of minerals deemed critical to U.S. strategic interests and outlines an action plan to ensure their supply.

Why it matters: Securing these minerals and their supply chains is essential to leading the way on technologies that will enable the global energy transition, including cobalt and lithium for batteries, graphite and scandium for fuel cells, and indium and tellurium for solar panels.

Background: The U.S. relies 100% on imports for 14 critical minerals and over 50% for 15 others and has few commercial processing facilities. Amid American neglect, China has carved out a dominant position in critical minerals.

Between the lines: Critical minerals present different security challenges from crude oil and are central to a successful and sustainable energy transition.

  • Although both resources are often concentrated in regions of high political risk, critical minerals feature less market governance, less liquidity and an opaque supply chain. For example, there is no "OPEC" for minerals, and the quality of data on supply and demand varies drastically. Some mineral markets are so small that a single actor can easily swing prices.
  • The extraction of critical minerals raises environmental and social concerns, exacerbated by artisanal mines with spotty labor standards that often come online as prices spike and shut down suddenly when they dip.

What we're watching: There are valuable ways the U.S. government could build on its new strategy:

  • Coordinating with Congress, which has introduced a bipartisan American Mineral Security Act that shares many of the administration's goals.
  • Reinvesting in atrophied economic geology programs at American universities. This is particularly important for workforce development, since the U.S. Geological Survey and other key entities can hire only American citizens to work on these issues.
  • Investing further in processing facilities and innovation, especially to reduce dependence on minerals that create strategic vulnerabilities.

David Livingston is deputy director for climate and advanced energy at the Atlantic Council Global Energy Center. Reed Blakemore is an associate director at the Global Energy Center.

Go deeper

Miriam Kramer, author of Space
3 mins ago - Science

NASA confirms water exists on sunny parts of the Moon

Photo: NASA/JPL/USGS

Water on the Moon might be more easily accessible than previously thought, opening up new possible avenues for future human exploration, according to a new study.

Why it matters: NASA is aiming to send people back to the Moon as part of its Artemis program by 2024, with plans to eventually create a sustainable presence on the lunar surface. That sustainability relies on mining the moon for its resources, like water.

Updated 31 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Pence no longer expected at Amy Coney Barrett's final confirmation vote

Photo: Ben Hasty/MediaNews Group/Reading Eagle via Getty Images

Vice President Mike Pence no longer plans to attend the Senate's final confirmation vote for Judge Amy Coney Barrett on Monday, following Senate Democrats' claims that his presence after possible exposure to the coronavirus would be a "violation of common decency," a Pence aide confirmed to CNN and Politico on Monday.

Driving the news: Five of Pence's aides were recently diagnosed with COVID-19, including his chief of staff, who is currently quarantining. Pence has continued his campaign travel despite his possible exposure, which goes against CDC guidelines.

Updated 34 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Politics: The swing states where the pandemic is raging — Ex-FDA chief: Pence campaigning after exposure puts others at risk — Pence no longer expected to attend Barrett confirmation vote after COVID exposure.
  2. Health: 13 states set single-day case records last week — U.S. reports over 80,000 new cases for second consecutive day.
  3. Business: Where stimulus is needed most.
  4. Education: The dangerous instability of school re-openings.
  5. World: Restrictions grow across Europe.
  6. Media: Fox News president and several hosts advised to quarantine.