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Reproduced from Third Way; Chart: Axios Visuals

The think tank Third Way just published an interesting look at the effect of planned and potential nuclear plant closures on carbon emissions in the U.S. power sector.

Why it matters: Even if just some of the early retirements come to pass, it will knock the country farther away from cutting greenhouse emissions by 80% below 2005 levels by 2050, a target set under President Obama.

Check out the chart above: The top shows how much zero-carbon power — from renewables and nuclear plants — is needed to support the economy-wide 2050 goal (based on analysis underlying a 2016 White House report).

  • The colored lines show how much varying levels of nuclear retirements will cause the U.S. to fall short of generating 2,750 million megawatt-hours of zero-carbon power annually by 2030.
  • One level deeper: The report looks at three levels of projected early nuke plant retirements — 20%, 55% and 66%. It notes that much of this generation will likely be replaced by natural gas, which means more emissions — and even if it was all replaced by renewables, it's still a setback. From Ryan Fitzpatrick, deputy director of the centrist think tank's clean energy program:
"The only way we win is if we grow the amount of zero-carbon energy we’re producing. As nuclear plants get shut down, new renewables will have to pay-off that zero-carbon debt before they actually start increasing our totals again."

The big picture: "Even if we limit the loss of nuclear generation between now and 2030 to just 20%, that’s a setback of 4.5 years’ worth of clean energy growth," Fitzpatrick writes. The setback is more severe as retirement rates grow.

  • As nuclear plants face heavy market pressure from natural gas and renewables, the number of planned or possible closures keeps rising. Most recently, FirstEnergy Solutions Corp. announced plans in late March to shutter two plants in Ohio and one in Pennsylvania by 2021.

A state focus: Fitzpatrick chatted with Axios about the group's views on policies that could ward off retirements.He is hopeful about stronger state-level efforts in areas where retirements loom in the next few years.

  • “It is really going to be incumbent on the states to start working on policy efforts right away, if they have not already,” he said.
  • The group supports expansion of so-called zero-emissions credits programs to more states beyond existing efforts in Illinois and New York.
  • Fitzpatrick also sees potential for states that already have renewable electricity standards to expand them into wider clean energy standards that greatly raise the target while crediting existing nuclear generation. This idea has been floated in Arizona.

The federal picture: Third Way does not support FirstEnergy's recent bid for sweeping use of the Energy Department's emergency powers to keep coal-fired and nuclear plants in the PJM Interconnection region operating with guaranteed cost recovery.

  • They would like to see a major policy initiative on the scale of a federal low-carbon power mandate (an idea floated under Obama), and perhaps a direct price on carbon. But that's extremely unlikely with Trump in the White House and Republicans controlling Congress.
  • “I would not expect federal support that is large enough to accomplish this in time to keep those plants online. And once they are off, they are gone," Fitzpatrick said.

Go deeper

The apocalypse scenario

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Democratic lawyers are preparing to challenge any effort by President Trump to swap electors chosen by voters with electors selected by Republican-controlled legislatures. One state of particular concern: Pennsylvania, where the GOP controls the state house.

Why it matters: Trump's refusal to commit to a peaceful transfer of power, together with a widely circulated article in The Atlantic about how bad the worst-case scenarios could get, is drawing new attention to the brutal fights that could jeopardize a final outcome.

Federal judge rules Trump administration can't end census early

Census workers outside Lincoln Center in New York. Photo: Noam Galai/Getty Images

A federal judge ruled late Thursday that the Trump administration could not end the 2020 census a month early.

Why it matters: The decision states that an early end — on Sept. 30, instead of Oct. 31 — would likely produce inaccuracies and thus impact political representation and government funding around the country.

Caitlin Owens, author of Vitals
2 hours ago - Health

Where bringing students back to school is most risky

Data: Coders Against COVID; Note: Rhode Island and Puerto Rico did not meet minimum testing thresholds for analysis. Values may not add to 100% due to rounding; Cartogram: Andrew Witherspoon/Axios

Schools in Southern and Midwestern states are most at risk of coronavirus transmission, according to an analysis by Coders Against COVID that uses risk indicators developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The big picture: Thankfully, schools have not yet become coronavirus hotspots, the Washington Post reported this week, and rates of infection are lower than in the surrounding communities. But that doesn't mean schools are in the clear, especially heading into winter.

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