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Photo: Silas Stein/picture alliance via Getty Images

The federal government has had to shoulder more of the country's higher education costs as state investments have declined the past 20 years — and especially after 2008's Great Recession — an analysis from the Pew Charitable Trusts shows.

The state of play: Education funding has experienced a large shift as federal funding programs based on student need surged while state funding for research and public universities withered.

  • State schools have deferred more costs to their students as a result.
  • Public colleges educate 70% of the country's higher ed students. A third of total revenue from public post-secondary schools is made up from federal and state sources.

By the numbers: Federal spending on major higher education programs totaled nearly $75 billion in 2017, excluding federal student loans, while state investments accounted for about $87 billion.

  • Pell Grants, federal aid for students in the lowest income bracket, surged by 96% between 2008 and 2010.
  • Federal veterans' education benefits grew by almost 150% between 2008 and 2017.
  • General appropriations for state spending dropped by 20% from 2008 to 2013.

Between the lines: The federal government is the largest student lender in the U.S. with $94 billion in loans from 2018 alone.

  • Despite the burden students have taken on in the past decade, young adults still say they value a higher education, per the Hechinger Report.

Go deeper: Axios' Deep Dive on the future of higher education

Go deeper

Felix Salmon, author of Capital
2 hours ago - Economy & Business

Americans are still spending money

Source: Census Bureau; Chart: Axios Visuals

Americans spent more money at stores and restaurants in 2020 than they did in 2019 — even in the face of a devastating global pandemic that shut down broad sectors of the economy.

Why it matters: The monthly retail sales report this morning came in well below expectations, and showed consumer spending falling on a seasonally-adjusted basis. Total expenditures were still higher in December 2020 than they were a year previously, however.

The deplatforming fight shifts to the courts

Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios

The Capitol riot and tech firms' sweeping attempt in its wake to dislodge the online far right are kicking up efforts to have the courts settle knotty questions about online speech and power.

Why it matters: Legal battles could force the people angry at Big Tech to bring more rigor to arguments that have often devolved into messy sideshows.

Caitlin Owens, author of Vitals
5 hours ago - Health

Biden taps ex-FDA chief to lead Operation Warp Speed amid rollout of COVID plan

Photo: Alex Wong/Getty Images

President-elect Joe Biden has picked former FDA chief David Kessler to lead Operation Warp Speed, a day after unveiling a nearly $2 trillion pandemic relief plan that includes $400 billion for directly combatting the virus.

Why it matters: Biden's transition team said Kessler has been advising the president-elect since the beginning of the pandemic, and hopes his involvement will help accelerate vaccination, the New York Times reports. Operation Warp Speed's current director, Moncef Slaoui, will stay on as a consultant.