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Adapted from Geyer et al., 2017, "Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made," Science Advances; Chart: Axios Visuals

Several new or recent reports highlight the damage from massive global plastics consumption and the challenge of tackling the problem. The chart above shows a stunning statistic highlighted in a recent report: Global plastics production grew to over 400 million tons in 2015.

Why it matters: Plastic bags, bottles and many other wastes are causing widespread harm to marine and coastal ecosystems and as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development report reminded us, the problem is getting worse.

They kill massive numbers of marine animals (including 1 million seabirds and 100,000 marine mammals annually in one widely cited estimate), degrade their environment, and enter the food chain.

Fresh evidence of the environmental problem . . .

  • A recent study in Marine Policy that uses a major dataset on ocean debris showed that a plastic bag was located nearly seven miles below the surface in the Mariana Trench, underscoring the breadth of marine pollution.
  • A major collection of stories and stunning photos in the latest edition of National Geographic has brought fresh attention to the topic.
  • The May 24 OECD report explores ways to boost recycling and barriers to adoption. It cites data showing that worldwide, just 14%–18% of waste plastics is recycled, 24% is thermally treated, and the rest is disposed of in landfills, open burning, or gets into the environment via "uncontrolled dumping" and other means.

Why it matters for energy: Plastics are a major source of oil demand. They currently account for around 4%–8% of worldwide oil and gas consumption, per the OECD.

Petrochemical production more broadly is one reason why global oil consumption may not peak for decades, even as greater vehicle efficiency and electrification bring a peak in oil demand for transportation closer to reality.

The oil demand equation: tougher curbs on plastics could have the spillover effect of altering global oil demand levels.

BP's chief economist said in February that various policies, such as stringent restrictions on plastic bags, could shave 2 million barrels per day from global oil demand by 2040, according to multiple reports.

One staggering factoid: "By mid-century, it is estimated that the ocean could have more plastic than fish by weight," the OECD notes. A new video on their report is here.

And their report assesses a large number of policy options to bolster recycling — such as statutory targets, so-called extended producer responsibility rules, procurement policies that boost demand for recycled content, and stronger policing of illegal dumping — and barriers to their adoption

Go deeper: Scientists grapple with the world's plastic problem

Go deeper

A quandary for state unemployment agencies

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

State agencies charged with paying unemployment benefits to jobless residents have their backs against the wall as they rush to parse President Trump's executive actions on coronavirus aid.

Why it matters: States are being asked to pitch in $100 per unemployed resident, but it’s a heavy lift for cash-strapped states that are still unclear about the details and may not opt-in at all. It leaves the states and jobless residents in a state of limbo.

Updated 49 mins ago - Health

New Zealand reports first local coronavirus cases for 102 days

Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern after a press conference at Parliament on July 22 in Wellington, New Zealand. Photo: Hagen Hopkins/Getty Images

AUCKLAND, New Zealand — Auckland is locking down and the rest of New Zealand faces lesser restrictions for 72 hours after a family of four tested positive for COVID-19, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced Tuesday.

Why it matters: It's the first cases not in managed isolation for 102 days, Ardern said at a news briefing.

The risk of branding NASA's wins

Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios

President Trump, like some of his predecessors, is branding NASA's recent wins as political, presidential accomplishments even though they are the result of efforts that span administrations.

Why it matters: Experts warn that partisan politicking with NASA can lead to whiplash that leaves the agency scrambling to chase new goals whenever a new administration arrives in Washington.