A well-timed cold snap has let Harvard scientists capture rapid evolution in close to real time. They have measured changes in the DNA, gene expression, and cold tolerance of a species of Anole lizard, which ranges from the Texan desert to Oklahoma and North Carolina.
Why it matters: This study, published Thursday in Science, shows that extreme weather events can noticeably change a population in as little as one generation. As the climate continues to change, extreme weather events like this one will become more common. It's important to understand how species will respond — both on the organismal level and population level, and the genetic level.