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Finnish children wait in Turku, Finland, to be evacuated during WWII. Photo: Wikimedia Commons

A study of children evacuated from Finland during World War II and their siblings who remained behind found the descendants of women who were evacuated were much more likely to be hospitalized for mental illness. The research, published Wednesday in JAMA Psychiatry, adds to a small but growing body of research that suggests the impacts of trauma may be passed down across generations.Why it matters: "Our study's inter-generational findings demonstrate, yet again, that mental health is a 'life course' issue," study author Stephen Gilman tells Axios — and one that could affect multiple lives. This is particularly important because today's refugee crises don't just span years, they can last entire lifetimes, notes Gilman.

What they did: Past research has shown the 50,000 children who were evacuated from Finland during WWII were more likely to experience mental illness than those who were not. To control for pre-existing genetic tendencies towards mental illness, the researchers looked at the rates of hospitalization among the descendants of first cousins: 3,000 children who were descended from evacuees, and over 90,000 who were descended from siblings who stayed.

What they found: Daughters of women who were evacuated were four times more likely to be hospitalized for mental illness compared to their first cousins who stayed. This trend held true regardless of whether or not their mothers had been hospitalized for mental illness but was not true for male offspring or the descendents of men.

Take note: Because the study is retrospective, it's impossible to capture all the possible variables impacting the children. And since the study looks at hospitalizations for mental illness, it may be underestimating the scope of the problem, since mental illnesses are often underreported, particularly in men. Still, the large sample size and strong associations help account for some of these challenges.

The researchers weren't able to determine the cause for this trend, but they suggest two possibilities:

  • The experience of being evacuated may have impacted the parenting behaviors of the subjects in the study, or that stories of experienced trauma influenced the mental health of their children.
  • Or, intriguingly, this could be due to epigenetics — sometimes-inheritable changes in which genes are activated. Essentially, cells control which genes are "turned on" in a cell by attaching or detaching a molecule that can prevent the piece of DNA from being read. Past research has shown a physiological response to famine can be passed down across generations. One study found that the descendants of Holocaust survivors have different hormonal responses to stress, and another study from the same lab suggested epigenetics may explain why.

Go deeper: Rachel Yehuda, an author on both papers on multi-generational mental health impacts in Holocaust survivors, notes the gender trends could indicate something epigenetic is at work. Past research has shown mothers can pass on certain epigenetic changes while pregnant.

The bottom line: Epigenetics is a fledgling field, and the epigenetics of mental health is even younger. But, notes Yehuda, "Data like these really help make the argument that the effects of war are devastating well beyond the actual exposure and potentially for generations after," whether it be genetic or otherwise.

Go deeper

Updated 8 hours ago - World

UK government: Kremlin has plan "to install pro-Russian leadership" in Ukraine

British Foreign Secretary Elizabeth Truss. Photo: Gints Ivuskans / AFP via Getty Images

The United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary on Saturday night said the government has "information that indicates the Russian Government is looking to install a pro-Russian leader in Kyiv as it considers whether to invade and occupy Ukraine."

Driving the news: U.S. National Security Council spokeswoman Emily Horne called the intelligence "deeply concerning" in a statement to Axios. The Biden administration has said Russia is actively manufacturing a pretext for invasion and warned that Putin could use joint military exercises in Belarus as cover to invade from the north.

Updated 10 hours ago - Science

This powerful new accelerator looks for keys to the center of atoms

Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios

Nuclear physicists trying to piece together how atoms are built are about to get a powerful new tool.

Why it matters: When the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams begins experiments later this spring, physicists from around the world will use the particle accelerator to better understand the inner workings of atoms that make up all the matter that can be seen in the universe.

Updated 10 hours ago - Politics & Policy

Omicron dashboard

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

  1. Health: FDA OKs antiviral drug remdesivir for non-hospitalized COVID patients — Walensky: CDC language "pivoting" on "fully vaccinated" — Pfizer and Moderna boosters overwhelmingly prevent Omicron hospitalizations, CDC finds.
  2. Vaccines: The case for Operation Warp Speed 2.0 — Teens and adults missed 37 million vaccinations during COVID — Team USA 100% vaccinated against COVID ahead of Beijing Olympics — Kids' COVID vaccination rates are particularly low in rural America — Annual COVID vaccine preferable to boosters, says Pfizer CEO.
  3. Politics: Arizona governor sues Biden administration over COVID funds tied to mandates — Biden concedes U.S. should have done more testing — Arizona says it "will not be intimidated" by Biden on anti-mask school policies.
  4. World: American Airlines flight to London forced to turn around over mask dispute — WHO: COVID health emergency could end this year — Greece imposes vaccine mandate for people 60 and older — Austria approves COVID vaccine mandate for adults — Beijing officials urge COVID-19 "emergency mode" before Winter Olympics.
  5. Variant tracker

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