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Data: Wood Mackenzie; Chart: Axios Visuals

There could be a "supply crunch" for cobalt, lithium, and nickel used in batteries for electric vehicles and other applications as soon as the mid-2020s, the consultancy Wood Mackenzie said Wednesday.

The big picture: The chart above shows their projections of demand for materials used in EVs but also batteries needed for consumer electronics and energy storage.

What's next: Wood Mackenzie forecasts that pure electrics and plug-in hybrids combined will account for 7% of all passenger car sales by 2025, 14% by 2030 and 38% by 2040.

  • Of note: That's less bullish than BloombergNEF, which sees EVs accounting for 57% of passenger car sales in 2040.

The bottom line: "The electrification of transport is redefining a number of metals markets," Wood Mackenzie said in a release summarizing their analysis.

What they're saying: Wood Mackenzie research director Gavin Montgomery said battery supply chains could be among the challenges for long-term EV adoption.

  • "It’s true that most automotive manufacturers plan to go completely electric by 2050. However, unless battery technology can be developed, tested, commercialised, manufactured and integrated into EVs and their supply chains faster than ever before, it will be impossible for many EV targets and ICE bans to be achieved — posing issues for current EV adoption rate projections," he said in a statement.

Go deeper ... Report: Tesla is prototyping its own batteries

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Most arrested in protests are not associated with antifa

Protesters demonstrate as a Salt Lake City police vehicle burns on May 30. Photo: Rick Bowmer/AP

Antifa may be a focus on the right, but it's hard to find in the court system.

Why it matters: Very few of the people charged in this summer's protests and riots appear to be affiliated with highly organized extremist groups, reports AP.

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Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell. Photo: The Washington Post/Getty Images

The Senate Leadership Fund, a super PAC associated with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, raised more than twice as much this September as it did two years ago, according to an FEC filing that will go live Tuesday night.

By the numbers: The SLF raised $92 million in September, spent $105 million, and ended the month with $113 million cash on hand, as Republicans work to maintain their majority on Nov. 3.

Erica Pandey, author of @Work
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The evolution of HR

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Before the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, human resources jobs were on the automation chopping block. Now they're essential.

The big picture: HR departments across the world have pulled off the incredible feat of turning companies from in-person to remote overnight, and as the pandemic continues to determine the future of work, HR has been elevated from a back-office function to a C-suite conversation.