Simulation of aerosols and 2017 hurricanes. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Using NASA mathematical models and satellite observations of sand, sea salt and smoke moving across the Western hemisphere, researchers at Goddard Space Flight Center created this visualization of the 2017 hurricane season.

What you're seeing: Sand and dust from the Sahara (seen in brown), sea salt picked up by the winds of hurricanes Irma, Harvey, Jose and Maria (blue) and smoke from wildfires in the western U.S. (gray) travel thousands of miles on wind. Across the Atlantic, Hurricane Ophelia takes form off the coast of Africa.

Why it matters: Simulating currents — in this case, from July 31, 2017 to November 1, 2017 — can be used to better understand the conditions under which storms form and evolve.

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What to expect from the final debate of the 2020 election

Trump and Biden at the first debate. Morry Gash-Pool/Getty Image

Watch for President Trump to address Joe Biden as “the big guy” or “the chairman” at tonight's debate as a way of dramatizing the Hunter Biden emails. Hunter's former business partner Tony Bobulinski is expected to be a Trump debate guest.

The big picture: Trump's advisers universally view the first debate as a catastrophe — evidenced by a sharp plunge in Trump’s public and (more convincingly for them) private polling immediately following the debate.

Updated 1 hour ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

  1. Politics: Chris Christie: Wear a mask "or you may regret it — as I did" — Senate Democrats block vote on McConnell's targeted relief bill.
  2. Business: New state unemployment filings fall.
  3. Economy: Why the stimulus delay isn't a crisis (yet).
  4. Health: FDA approves Gilead's remdesivir as a coronavirus treatment How the pandemic might endMany U.S. deaths were avoidable.
  5. Education: Boston and Chicago send students back home for online learning.
  6. World: Spain and France exceed 1 million cases.

FBI: Russian hacking group stole data after targeting local governments

FBI Headquarters. Photo: Mark Wilson/Getty Images

Energetic Bear, a Russian state-sponsored hacking group, has stolen data from two servers after targeting state and federal government networks in the U.S. since at least September, the FBI and Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency said on Thursday.

Driving the news: Director of National Intelligence John Ratcliffe announced Wednesday that Iran and Russia had obtained voter registration information that could be used to undermine confidence in the U.S. election system.