Aug 11, 2017

Urban sea snakes shed stripes — and pollutants

Claire Goran / University of New Caledonia

Scientists report a normally-banded species of sea snake is evolving darker skin to get rid of manmade pollutants. Some insects, like the peppered moth, evolved "urban melanism" for better camouflage in polluted environments, but this is the first time something similar has been seen in a marine animal. It also suggests at least one species of sea snake may be adapting to pollution, though just how well it's working remains to be seen.

What they did: The scientists examined populations of turtle-headed sea snakes and museum specimens throughout Southeast Asia and Australia, and found a clear association between dark coloration and urban pollution or military activity. They found that the all-dark snakes were twice as likely to shed their skin, and that those sheds had more contaminants. Finally, they looked at another kind of sea snake called banded sea kraits, and found that even on a single snake, the dark stripes had more pollutants than light stripes.

A long-standing mystery: "We've known for a while some groups of these snakes were jet black, but we didn't know why," Richard Shine of the University of Sydney, Australia tells Axios. He's been studying sea snakes for 20 years. "We looked at habitat, mating systems — we even dragged different colored ropes behind a boat to see which they preferred."

It stayed a mystery until Shine's collaborator Claire Goran, a marine biologist at the University of New Caledonia, was reading a paper that found melanin helped dark-colored pigeons shed more toxins through their feathers than light-colored pigeons. It was her idea to look at the levels of pollutants in snake skin.

A small challenge: The researchers still need to determine whether dark-skinned snakes survive better in polluted water than striped snakes. Unfortunately, says Shine, that's easier said than done. They're a long-lived species. "Some of the first snakes I marked are still swimming," he tells Axios.

Go deeper

Fed temporarily lifts Wells Fargo's growth restrictions

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The Federal Reserve said Wednesday it will temporarily lift Wells Fargo’s growth restrictions, which were put in place following the bank’s customer abuse scandals.

Why it matters: The Fed’s only reason for lifting the cap is so Wells Fargo can dole out more loans to struggling small businesses as part of the government’s coronavirus aid package. Earlier this week, the bank said it could only lend a total of $10 billion, thanks to Fed restrictions that it can’t grow its assets beyond $1.95 trillion.

Coronavirus dashboard

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  1. Global: Total confirmed cases as of 12 p.m. ET: 1,450,343 — Total deaths: 83,568 — Total recoveries: 308,617Map.
  2. U.S.: Total confirmed cases as of 12 p.m. ET: 399,979 — Total deaths: 12,912 — Total recoveries: 22,539Map.
  3. Business updates: Roughly one-third of U.S. apartment renters didn't make April payments.
  4. Federal government latest: The U.S. has begun to see "glimmers of hope" despite its highest recorded number of deaths in 24 hours, Anthony Fauci said.
  5. Public health latest: Surgeon General Jerome Adams highlighted the disproportionate impact the illness is having on African-American communities.
  6. World latest: Indians look to Taiwan amid China's coronavirus missteps
  7. 🚌 Public transit: Systems across the country are experiencing ridership collapse, squeezed funding streams and slow recovery from the pandemic.
  8. What should I do? Pets, moving and personal healthAnswers about the virus from Axios expertsWhat to know about social distancingQ&A: Minimizing your coronavirus risk.
  9. Other resources: CDC on how to avoid the virus, what to do if you get it.

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Bernie Sanders suspends presidential campaign

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Sen. Bernie Sanders announced Wednesday that he is suspending his presidential campaign.

The big picture: It's an end to the campaign of the leading progressive in the race — and the candidate who seemed to be the clear front-runner for the Democratic nomination just a few months ago. It also makes Biden the presumptive Democratic nominee four months before the party's convention in Milwaukee.