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Situational awareness:

  • Johnson & Johnson has received subpoenas from the Justice Department and Securities and Exchange Commission related to alleged asbestos contamination in its baby powder product line. (Reuters)
  • British lawmakers could vote on a revised Brexit deal as early as next week, finance minister Philip Hammond said. (Reuters)
  • Ride-hailing company Lyft is planning to list shares on the Nasdaq and is expected to make its IPO filing public as early as next week. (Wall Street Journal)
  • Shares of Maersk fell 9% after warning that its full-year profit guidance hinged on whether there’s an escalation in the U.S.-China trade war. (Associated Press)

History: Zumbi dos Palmares was a warrior king known as one of the pioneers of resistance to slavery of Africans by the Portuguese in Brazil. He was also the last of the kings of the Quilombo dos Palmares, a settlement of Afro-Brazilians who liberated themselves from enslavement, in present-day of Alagoas, Brazil.

Palmares was established around 1605 by enslaved Africans who fled to the hills and instituted a free settlement they called Angola janga, which would grow to be the greatest community of escaped slaves in the Americas.

By 1678, the governor of a local region offered freedom for all runaway slaves in Palmares if the colony would submit to Portuguese authority. Zumbi, then the commander-in-chief of the Palmares' forces, refused to accept freedom while other Africans remained enslaved.

Zumbi challenged the country's current king, his uncle who supported the accord, for the throne. As king, he implemented a far more aggressive stance against the Portuguese, leading Palmares for years to come.

Nov. 20 is still celebrated in Brazil as a day of Afro-Brazilian consciousness. Brazilians of African descent honor Zumbi as a hero and symbol of freedom.