A green neon sea snail. Photo: Prisma Bildagentur/UIG via Getty Images

Researchers claim to have transplanted a specific memory between sea snails using RNA injections, reports the Guardian.

Why it matters: If the findings of the new study in the journal eNeuro are eventually proven to be accurate — something some scientists express doubt over — it could prompt a rethinking of the concept of memories.

The backdrop: The scientists, led by UCLA neurobiologist David Glanzman, theorized that some memories are encoded in an organism's genetic makeup, and not just in their brain.

What they did, per the Guardian:

  • Glanzman implanted wires into the tails of two California sea hares and gave them a series of electric shocks to sensitize them and trigger a defense mechanism.
  • Researchers extracted RNA from these sea snails and injected it into others that had not been exposed to the shocks. They found they became sensitized as well and showed the same defense mechanism.

What they're saying: Other researchers aren't convinced that this hypothesis rings true. Some told the Guardian that there may be a switch in the snails triggered by the RNA that causes the snails to become defensive, but it may not be the same thing as transplanting a memory.

Yes, but: Tomás Ryan, a scientist studying memory, said radical thought is needed in the field, even if hypotheses like the one in this study are eventually proven to be flawed. He told the Guardian:

"In a field like this which is so full of dogma, where we are waiting for people to retire so we can move on, we need as many new ideas as possible."

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Robert Mueller speaks out on Roger Stone commutation

Former Special Counsel Robert Mueller testifies before the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence on Capitol Hill on Wednesday July 24, 2019. Photo: The Washington Post / Contributor

Former special counsel Robert Mueller responded to claims from President Trump and his allies that Roger Stone was a "victim" in the Justice Department's investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 election, writing in a Washington Post op-ed published Saturday: "He remains a convicted felon, and rightly so."

Why it matters: The rare public comments by Mueller come on the heels of President Trump's move to commute the sentence of his longtime associate, who was sentenced in February to 40 months in prison for crimes stemming from the Russia investigation. The controversial decision brought an abrupt end to the possibility of Stone spending time behind bars.

Trump dons face mask during Walter Reed visit

Trump wearing a face mask in Walter Reed National Military Medical Center on July 11. Photo: Alex Edelman/AFP via Getty Images

President Trump wore a face mask during his Saturday visit to Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, according to AP.

Why it matters: This is the first known occasion the president has appeared publicly with a facial covering as recommended by health officials since the coronavirus pandemic began, AP writes.

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Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Global: Total confirmed cases as of 5:30 p.m. ET: 12,607,510 — Total deaths: 562,338 — Total recoveries — 6,948,863Map.
  2. U.S.: Total confirmed cases as of 5:30 p.m. ET: 3,228,884 — Total deaths: 134,600 — Total recoveries: 983,185 — Total tested: 38,919,421Map.
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