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Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Wall Street's populist uprising, the Capitol siege and a strong U.S. anti-vaccination movement show the power of memes in spreading misinformation and influencing communities online.

Why it matters: For years, there's been growing concern that deepfakes (doctored pictures and videos) would become truth's greatest threat. Instead, memes have proven to be a more effective tool in spreading misinformation because they're easier to produce and harder to moderate using artificial intelligence.

  • "When we talk abut deepfakes, there are already companies and technologies that can help you understand their origin," says Shane Creevy, head of editorial for Kinzen, a disinformation tracking firm. "But I'm not aware of any tech that really helps you understand the origin of memes."

Catch up quick: A meme is a piece of mixed media, usually text laid over a photo or video, that is designed to go viral, often through humor.

  • Some memes can be lighthearted, like the viral Bernie Sanders mittens meme from Inauguration day. But many memes are meant to be deceptive, or prey upon fears and biases.

Driving the news: New research from media intelligence firm Zignal Labs shows how memes became a powerful agent for spreading misinformation online around the COVID vaccine.

  • The data shows that a single meme, first circulated late last December, has helped to drive thousands of new mentions of a conspiracy tying the COVID-19 vaccine to 5G.
  • The tweet, which continues to go viral today, features an electric circuit of a guitar pedal, claiming it's diagram of a 5G chip. Text overlaid onto the meme suggests the architecture of the chip is the same as that of the COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Exposure to vaccine misinformation was tied to a roughly six-percentage point reduction in people's intention to get vaccinated, according to a study published earlier this month.
  • Most of the misinformation researchers encounter on social platforms features media that manipulates context, like memes — not deepfakes.

The big picture: Memes have become more popular in recent years as photo-editing and sharing software becomes more ubiquitous.

  • "We're seeing a long-term, multi-year shift to richer media," Facebook CTO Mike Schroepfer recently said on a call with reporters.
  • "10-12 years ago we predominantly saw text on the platform," he said. "Now, imagery plus text and video is on rise."

Yes, but: While artificial intelligence has been successful in identifying misleading phrases and images separately, it isn't yet equipped to understand how context changes when text and images or videos are overlaid in a meme, Creevy says.

  • It is partly an image recognition problem. "Memes can be made arbitrarily complex," says Dileep George, an AI researcher and founder of Vicarious AI. For example, the form, size and placement of letters can be varied, and a scene can be put inside a letter and another in the background.
  • A human can detect those manipulations, but they can be "extremely hard for deep learning systems to parse," George says, adding that AI systems may get better at detecting them as the data used to train them expands.

But AI meets another challenge in memes: understanding the cultural context. Memes are often rooted in satire.

  • "Common sense needs to be solved to crack that problem," George says, adding it will require fundamental breakthroughs in building AI systems that draw more on principles from how the human brain understand cultural context.

What to watch: What could help to address meme misinformation at scale is decentralized human content moderation, Creevy says, or tasking many people to help identify potentially misleading memes.

  • In speaking with reporters on this issue, Schroepfer noted that Facebook has organized a "hateful memes challenge" to try to further decentralize Facebook's efforts in policing hate speech through memes.
  • Twitter recently rolled out a crowdsourced misinformation effort called Birdwatch, which allows people to identify information in Tweets they believe is incorrect or misleading and provide notes that offer informative context.

The bottom line: "I would love to think there will be tech developed that can solve the meme problem," Creevy says. "But tech hasn't gotten so far."

Go deeper: Experts say vaccine misinformation crackdown is coming too late

Go deeper

Former D.C. Guard alleges Army Generals lied about Jan. 6 response

Members of the National Guard and Capitol police keep a small group of pro-Trump demonstrators away from the Capitol following the insurrection on Jan. 6. Photo: Spencer Platt/Getty Images

A former D.C. National Guard official has alleged that top Army generals "lied" to Congress in their testimony on the U.S. Capitol riot, Politico first reported Monday.

The big picture: Col. Earl Matthews, who was serving on Jan. 6, alleges in a memo that the official version on the military response is "worthy of the best Stalinist or North Korea propagandist" and that the Pentagon inspector general's November report on it features "myriad inaccuracies, false or misleading statements, or examples of faulty analysis."

Toyota to build $1.3 billion U.S. battery plant in North Carolina

The all-electric Toyota bZ4X, the company's first battery-electric vehicle, at the Los Angeles Auto Show in Los Angeles, California on Nov. 17. Photo: Frederic J. Brown/AFP via Getty Images

Toyota announced Monday it's investing $1.3 billion to construct an electric vehicle battery "megasite" near Greensboro, North Carolina, set to open in 2025.

Why it matters: Toyota's Prius hybrid won environmental plaudits when it launched in 1997, but it has since lost ground to electric vehicle world leader Tesla, per Axios' Joann Muller. This battery plant will be the first to produce automotive batteries for Toyota in North America.

5 hours ago - Politics & Policy

Congress hunts for shortcut to pass defense funding, debt limit combo

Senate Majority Leader Chuck Schumer returned to his office Monday. Photo: Anna Moneymaker/Getty Images

The scramble in Congress to pass the National Defense Authorization Act is being complicated by an effort to tie it to a needed hike in the federal debt limit.

Why it matters: The House and Senate are rapidly coming up against a series of deadlines they must address before the end of the year — or risk disrupting crucial military funding and upending the economy. Congressional leaders are now hoping they can knock out both "must-pass" priorities in one, complex swoop.