Sign up for our daily briefing

Make your busy days simpler with Axios AM/PM. Catch up on what's new and why it matters in just 5 minutes.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Catch up on the day's biggest business stories

Subscribe to Axios Closer for insights into the day’s business news and trends and why they matter

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Stay on top of the latest market trends

Subscribe to Axios Markets for the latest market trends and economic insights. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sports news worthy of your time

Binge on the stats and stories that drive the sports world with Axios Sports. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Tech news worthy of your time

Get our smart take on technology from the Valley and D.C. with Axios Login. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Get the inside stories

Get an insider's guide to the new White House with Axios Sneak Peek. Sign up for free.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Catch up on coronavirus stories and special reports, curated by Mike Allen everyday

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Denver news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Denver

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Des Moines news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Des Moines

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Twin Cities news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Twin Cities

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Tampa Bay news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Tampa Bay

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Charlotte news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with Axios Charlotte

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Nashville news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with the Axios Nashville newsletter.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Columbus news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with the Axios Columbus newsletter.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Want a daily digest of the top Dallas news?

Get a daily digest of the most important stories affecting your hometown with the Axios Dallas newsletter.

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Sign up for Axios NW Arkansas

Stay up-to-date on the most important and interesting stories affecting NW Arkansas, authored by local reporters

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Please enter a valid email.

Please enter a valid email.

Subscription failed
Thank you for subscribing!

Illustration: Aïda Amer/Axios

Wall Street's populist uprising, the Capitol siege and a strong U.S. anti-vaccination movement show the power of memes in spreading misinformation and influencing communities online.

Why it matters: For years, there's been growing concern that deepfakes (doctored pictures and videos) would become truth's greatest threat. Instead, memes have proven to be a more effective tool in spreading misinformation because they're easier to produce and harder to moderate using artificial intelligence.

  • "When we talk abut deepfakes, there are already companies and technologies that can help you understand their origin," says Shane Creevy, head of editorial for Kinzen, a disinformation tracking firm. "But I'm not aware of any tech that really helps you understand the origin of memes."

Catch up quick: A meme is a piece of mixed media, usually text laid over a photo or video, that is designed to go viral, often through humor.

  • Some memes can be lighthearted, like the viral Bernie Sanders mittens meme from Inauguration day. But many memes are meant to be deceptive, or prey upon fears and biases.

Driving the news: New research from media intelligence firm Zignal Labs shows how memes became a powerful agent for spreading misinformation online around the COVID vaccine.

  • The data shows that a single meme, first circulated late last December, has helped to drive thousands of new mentions of a conspiracy tying the COVID-19 vaccine to 5G.
  • The tweet, which continues to go viral today, features an electric circuit of a guitar pedal, claiming it's diagram of a 5G chip. Text overlaid onto the meme suggests the architecture of the chip is the same as that of the COVID-19 vaccine.
  • Exposure to vaccine misinformation was tied to a roughly six-percentage point reduction in people's intention to get vaccinated, according to a study published earlier this month.
  • Most of the misinformation researchers encounter on social platforms features media that manipulates context, like memes — not deepfakes.

The big picture: Memes have become more popular in recent years as photo-editing and sharing software becomes more ubiquitous.

  • "We're seeing a long-term, multi-year shift to richer media," Facebook CTO Mike Schroepfer recently said on a call with reporters.
  • "10-12 years ago we predominantly saw text on the platform," he said. "Now, imagery plus text and video is on rise."

Yes, but: While artificial intelligence has been successful in identifying misleading phrases and images separately, it isn't yet equipped to understand how context changes when text and images or videos are overlaid in a meme, Creevy says.

  • It is partly an image recognition problem. "Memes can be made arbitrarily complex," says Dileep George, an AI researcher and founder of Vicarious AI. For example, the form, size and placement of letters can be varied, and a scene can be put inside a letter and another in the background.
  • A human can detect those manipulations, but they can be "extremely hard for deep learning systems to parse," George says, adding that AI systems may get better at detecting them as the data used to train them expands.

But AI meets another challenge in memes: understanding the cultural context. Memes are often rooted in satire.

  • "Common sense needs to be solved to crack that problem," George says, adding it will require fundamental breakthroughs in building AI systems that draw more on principles from how the human brain understand cultural context.

What to watch: What could help to address meme misinformation at scale is decentralized human content moderation, Creevy says, or tasking many people to help identify potentially misleading memes.

  • In speaking with reporters on this issue, Schroepfer noted that Facebook has organized a "hateful memes challenge" to try to further decentralize Facebook's efforts in policing hate speech through memes.
  • Twitter recently rolled out a crowdsourced misinformation effort called Birdwatch, which allows people to identify information in Tweets they believe is incorrect or misleading and provide notes that offer informative context.

The bottom line: "I would love to think there will be tech developed that can solve the meme problem," Creevy says. "But tech hasn't gotten so far."

Go deeper: Experts say vaccine misinformation crackdown is coming too late

Go deeper

Trump says he plans to launch new social media network in 2022

Photo: Chris Delmas/AFP via Getty Images

Former President Trump on Wednesday announced plans to launch a social media network called "Truth Social," and that it would go public via a SPAC.

Why it matters: Most ex-presidents are focused on their legacies, by creating presidential libraries or engaging in philanthropic endeavors. Trump, however, remains consumed by social media.

Beauty giant Coty Cosmetics looking to sell its own branded products

Coty Cosmetics CEO Sue Nabi. Photo: Axios on HBO

Coty Cosmetics CEO Sue Nabi tells Axios the beauty giant will “probably” introduce Coty-branded products one day.

Why it matters: Coty produces some of the world’s most popular fragrances, skin care products and color cosmetics on behalf of other well-known brands, but has shied away from producing its own branded products.

1 hour ago - Sports

NFL to end race-based testing in concussion settlements

Photo: Brett Carlsen/Getty Images

The National Football League on Wednesday reached an agreement with former players to end the controversial practice of race-based adjustments in dementia testing, AP reports.

Why it matters: The deal, which must still be approved by a judge, comes amid a broader discussion of racial inequities in health care.