Charlie Riedel / AP

"Harvey is a 1,000-year flood event unprecedented in scale," per WashPost weather editor Jason Samenow:"An analysis from the University of Wisconsin's Space Science and Engineering Center has determined that Harvey is a 1-in-1,000-year flood event that has overwhelmed an enormous section of Southeast Texas equivalent in size to New Jersey.""There is nothing in the historical record that rivals this, according to Shane Hubbard, the Wisconsin researcher who made and mapped this calculation.""A 1,000-year flood event ... signifies just a 0.1 percent chance of such an event happening in any given year."But, but, but: "[R]ainfall and flood data generally go back only 100 years or so, so statistical tricks must be applied to determine what 500-year and 1,000-year events actually represent. Furthermore, the climate is changing and precipitation events have become more intense in recent decades, so what constitutes different return frequencies (100-year, 500-year, 1,000-year and so forth) is probably changing."Why it matters: "Climate change studies have found that what's considered a 500-year flood today may become much more frequent in coming decades."

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Updated 1 hour ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Annelise Capossela/Axios

  1. Politics: Trump calls Fauci a "disaster" on campaign call.
  2. Health: Coronavirus hospitalizations are on the rise — 8 states set single-day coronavirus case records last week.
  3. States: California to independently review FDA-approved coronavirus vaccinesWisconsin judge reimposes capacity limit on indoor venues.
  4. Media: Trump attacks CNN as "dumb b---ards" for continuing to cover pandemic.
  5. World: Ireland moving back into lockdown as cases surge — Argentina becomes 5th country to report 5 million infections
Updated 1 hour ago - World

In photos: Coronavirus restrictions grow across Europe

A closed-down pub in Dublin on Oct. 19. Under Ireland's new six-week-longh measures, taking effect at midnight on Oct. 21, most must stores close, home visits will be banned and a three-mile travel limit will be imposed for exercise.

The Republic of Ireland's Taoiseach Micheál Martin announced Monday evening the country would this week return to its highest level of lockdown restrictions.

The big picture: Restrictions are returning across Europe as the continent faces a second coronavirus wave. Several countries have imposed regional lockdowns, but Ireland is the first to return to a full nationwide lockdown. Take a look at what's happening, in photos.

Dion Rabouin, author of Markets
3 hours ago - Economy & Business

The 2020 holiday season may just kill Main Street

Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios

Online retail and e-commerce have been chipping away at brick-and-mortar businesses over the years but the combination of the coronavirus pandemic and the 2020 holiday season may prove to be a knockout blow.

State of play: Anxious consumers say financial concerns and health worries will push them to spend less money this year and to do more of their limited spending online.