Jean Lachat / University of Chicago

Neutrinos are some of the most common particles in the universe, but they're also some of the most mysterious. They have (almost) no mass and no charge, and can pass through solid objects (and entire planets) like we pass through air. But scientists at Duke University have successfully detected these 'ghost particles' doing something no one has seen before: scattering off the nucleus of an atom.

Why it matters: Currently, scientists study neutrinos by measuring the energy produced when they interact with a proton or neutron — a very rare event. Now that scientists know they can detect neutrinos scattering off a nucleus, they might be able to use them to detect supernovas, or use a similar technique to detect dark matter scattering off of nuclei, reports Science News.

Physicists say understanding neutrinos is crucial to our understanding of the universe. They're produced by nuclear fusion and radioactive decay. Some scientists think neutrinos might be a part of why the universe is made up of matter and not antimatter.

Not quite a game changer: Forty years ago, researchers hypothesized that neutrinos would scatter a certain way if they interacted with a nucleus, according to the standard model of physics. In this experiment, the neutrino scattered exactly as predicted (and the standard model is safe... for now.)

Handheld physics lab: Not only are neutrinos really, really hard to observe, most of the equipment currently used to detect them is really, really big and expensive. For example, the proposed India-based Neutrino Observatory requires a 50,000 ton calorimeter. But the researchers in this experiment used a detector about the same size as a champagne bottle.

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Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Global: Total confirmed cases as of 9:45 p.m. ET: 19,282,972 — Total deaths: 718,851 — Total recoveries — 11,671,491Map.
  2. U.S.: Total confirmed cases as of 9:45 p.m. ET: 4,937,441 — Total deaths: 161,248 — Total recoveries: 1,623,870 — Total tests: 60,415,558Map.
  3. Politics: Trump says he's prepared to sign executive orders on coronavirus aid.
  4. Education: Cuomo says all New York schools can reopen for in-person learning.
  5. Public health: Surgeon general urges flu shots to prevent "double whammy" with coronavirus — Massachusetts pauses reopening after uptick in coronavirus cases.
  6. World: Africa records over 1 million coronavirus cases — Gates Foundation puts $150 million behind coronavirus vaccine production.

Warren and Clinton to speak on same night of Democratic convention

(Photos: Abdulhamid Hosbas/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images, Sean Rayford/Getty Images)

Sen. Elizabeth Warren and Hillary Clinton both are slated to speak on the Wednesday of the Democratic convention — Aug. 19 — four sources familiar with the planning told Axios.

Why it matters: That's the same night Joe Biden's running mate (to be revealed next week) will address the nation. Clinton and Warren represent two of the most influential wise-women of Democratic politics with the potential to turn out millions of establishment and progressive voters in November.

Trump considering order on pre-existing condition protections, which already exist

Photo: Jim Watson/AFP via Getty Images

President Trump announced on Friday he will pursue an executive order requiring insurance companies to cover pre-existing conditions, something that is already law.

Why it matters: The Affordable Care Act already requires insurers to cover pre-existing conditions. The Trump administration is currently arguing in a case before the Supreme Court to strike down that very law — including its pre-existing condition protections.