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Reproduced from IEA; Note: In 2018 dollars; Chart: Axios Visuals

International Energy Agency data shows that worldwide subsidies that lower consumer costs for fossil fuels grew to over $400 billion last year, their highest levels since 2014.

Why it matters: The persistence of the payments, despite some progress in pricing reforms in recent years in several nations, are among the many headwinds in the effort to combat climate change.

  • And the IEA report doesn't even include various governments' support for fossil fuel production projects.

What they're saying: "The continued prevalence of these subsidies — more than double the estimated subsidies to renewables — greatly complicates the task of achieving an early peak in global emissions," IEA analysts said in a June 13 report.

Where it stands: Higher oil prices in 2018 than 2017 were one driver of the overall increase, while higher energy consumption was another.

  • Oil-related subsidies rose from $143 billion in 2017 to $182 billion last year.
  • Higher petro prices were a strain in countries where consumers faced higher retail costs, "particularly where national currencies were losing value against the U.S. dollar," IEA notes.
  • Indonesia, Iran, Egypt and Venezuela saw the biggest subsidy increases for oil products. Iran, Venezuela, Mexico, Egypt and China all saw higher subsidies for fossil-based power.

The intrigue: Tackling subsidies is tricky — as IEA notes, there's a need to make energy more affordable to poor and vulnerable populations.

  • "But many subsidies are poorly targeted, disproportionally benefiting wealthier segments of the population that use much more of the subsidised fuel," the report states.

Go deeper: 2020 Democrats pushing to end public financing of fossil fuels

Go deeper

GOP fears "little guy" attack on Amy Coney Barrett

Illustration: Eniola Odetunde/Axios

White House aides and Senate Republicans have spent the past week readying binders full of messaging and rebuttals to guide Judge Amy Coney Barrett to a pre-Nov. 3 confirmation. "We knew for days it was going to be Amy," a Senate GOP aide involved in her confirmation process told Axios.

What we're hearing: Beyond the expected questions about her views on religion, abortion and health care, Republicans worry about Democrats painting Barrett as someone who is insensitive and unfair to “the little guy,” one source involved in the talks told Axios.

Updated 35 mins ago - Politics & Policy

Coronavirus dashboard

Illustration: Sarah Grillo/Axios

  1. Global: Total confirmed cases as of 4:30 p.m. ET: 32,938,616 — Total deaths: 995,465 — Total recoveries: 22,782,724Map.
  2. U.S.: Total confirmed cases as of 4:30 p.m. ET: 7,101,774 — Total deaths: 204,618 — Total recoveries: 2,750,459 — Total tests: 100,492,536Map.
  3. States: 3 states set single-day coronavirus case records last week — New York daily cases top 1,000 for first time since June.
  4. Health: The long-term pain of the mental health pandemicFewer than 10% of Americans have coronavirus antibodies.
  5. Business: Millions start new businesses in time of coronavirus.
  6. Education: Summer college enrollment offers a glimpse of COVID-19's effect.

Debate commission co-chair: We don't expect moderators to fact-check candidates

Presidential Debate Commission co-chair Frank Fahrenkopf Jr. said Sunday he doesn't expect Fox News anchor Chris Wallace or any of the other moderators to fact-check President Trump or former Vice President Joe Biden at the debates.

What he's saying: "There's a vast difference between being a moderator in a debate and being a reporter who is interviewing someone," Fahrenkopf said on CNN's "Reliable Sources."